WORLD HOSPITAL DIRECTORY
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Hon. H.E. Sir. Dr. Raphael Louis-PM Candidate (2015 - 2020)


World Hospital Map*
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WORLD HOSPITAL DIRECTORY is the one and only largest database of hospitals around the world. There are over 65,000 plus records of hospitals across globe with geo data viz Longitude, Latitude, UTM, GPS, Lombard projection, map, etc, thereby enabling the browsers to know to distance between the searched Hospital and the browsers.

WORLD HOSPITAL DIRECTORY has the World's largest online database of general, multispeciality, eye, dental, children, maternity, cardiac care, orthopedic, nephrology, neurology, diabetic, psychiatric, cancer, ENT, hospice, Rehabilitation, alternate medicine, veterinary hospitals across globe. Discover the complete list of hospitals available in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, rest of the world and online.

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1CEMIC
CEMIC
Category: General Hospitals
Argentina
South America, America
2Croydon Hospital (Tablelands HSD)
Croydon Hospital (Tablelands HSD)
Category: Mulispeciality Hospitals
Australia
Australia and New Zealand, Oceanic
3Regionaal Hospital Sint-Maria
Regionaal Hospital Sint-Maria
Category: Mulispeciality Hospitals
Belgium
Western Europe, Europe
4Bairro Passo D'areia Farmaconte Dist. Produtos Hospitalares Ltda.
Bairro Passo D'areia Farmaconte Dist. Produtos Hospitalares Ltda.
Category: Mulispeciality Hospitals
Brazil
South America, America
5BCIT - Technology Centre, Health Technology Research Group
BCIT - Technology Centre, Health Technology Research Group
Category: General Hospitals
Canada
North America, America

1.
Why Our Healthcare System Isnt Healthy
Why Our Healthcare System Isnt HealthyMost people are well aware that an estimated 45 million Americans currently do not have healthcare, but is the crisis simply the lack
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2.
Stopping Hospital Infections
Stopping Hospital InfectionsEach year hospitals end up killing twice as many people than automobiles, some 90,000 deaths in the United States. It is not from malpractice, i
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3.
Protect Yourself Against the Flu Vaccine!
Protect Yourself Against the Flu Vaccine!<br />
The vaccine industry insists that their vaccines against the flu serve as the key to a healthy winter. Although there has
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4.
Chinese Medicine
Chinese MedicineChinese Medicine, over 2000 years old, is an ancient form of medicine. Consisting of acupuncture, moxibustion (moxibustion - using material made up of
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5.
Medical Billing Specialist
Medical Billing SpecialistAs Pres. Bush was touring the Midwest, shortly before he was re-elected as President, and even after, he spoke of medical reform centering on
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6.
Nasonex And You: Breathe Easy, Not Sneezy
Nasonex And You: Breathe EasyWhile everybody else is wandering around enjoying the spring weather, are you hiding out in your hermetically-sealed house? Do you dread the star
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7.
Chronic Headaches and Pain Often Can Be Eliminated By A Special Dentist
Chronic Headaches Often Can Be Eliminated By A Special DentistDENVER ? Sometimes as Freud once said a good cigar is just a smoke. A headache, on the other hand, occas
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8.
Physicians, Chiropractors and Physical Therapist Agree on a New Treatment for Low Back Pain
New Treatment for Low Back Pain<br />
One of the most prevalent and difficult health conditions to treat in the physical medicine is low back pain. The difficulty in tre
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9.
Web Therapy: Enhancing Patient Communication with Web Access
Web Therapy: Enhancing Patient Communication with Web AccessAccording to Jennifer Lyons' chart, she's just a bad slip and fall who's lucky enough to be on her way to a full
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10.
Increasing Patient Care and Reducing Liability in Seven Simple Steps
Increasing Patient Care and Reducing Liability in Seven Simple StepsWhen an unconscious patient arrives in the ED, every hospital agrees that timely next of kin notificat
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11.
Cetyl Myristoleate Seperating Fact From Fiction
Cetyl Myristoleate Seperating Fact From FictionI am a strong believer in Cetyl Myristoleate for the treatment of arthritis. For the last three years I have been res
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12.
Medical Tests: What Does a Normal Range Mean?
Medical Tests: What Does a Normal Range Mean?We have a marvelous array of medical tests available to us. Many of them-typically blood-tests-even come with results expressed
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13.
CT and MRI Scans in Neurological Practice
CT and MRI Scans in Neurological Practice

Before computed tomographic (CT) scans became available in the 1970s, there was no good method for imaging the brain. The a
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14.
Alcohol Rehabilitation Centers - Take An Informed Decision
Alcohol Rehabilitation Centers - Take An Informed DecisionAlcohol rehabilitation centers in the United States offer a wide range of treatment programmes for your recovery f
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15.
Contact Lenses and Eye Glasses
Contact Lenses and Eye GlassesHow is Your Vision?
Notice friends getting contact lenses and pulling out eye glasses?

"What do you recommend?"

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16.
Death by Fluoride
Death by FluorideA wee bit of fluoride makes teeth and dentists happy, we're told. Dr. Happy Tooth's smiley face turns into a frown when his favorite decay buster is busted
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17.
10 Steps To Detoxification
10 Steps To DetoxificationTechnology. We live in a grand time of technological development. Computers, the Internet, cell phones, digital cameras and DVDs. But the human body h
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18.
New Surgical Treatment Options for Hernias
New Surgical Treatment Options for HerniasHernia repair is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide. In fact, there are over 600,000 hernia repa
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19.
Arthritis Pain Relief : FAQ
Arthritis Pain Relief : FAQA great place to begin taking charge of you arthritis pain relief and prevention planning is by making an appointment with your healthc
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20.
A Surgical Robot Fixes Heart in Brazil
a Surgical Robot Fixes Heart in BrazilBrazilian surgeons used a multi-armed robot to repair a hole in a woman's heart in the first operation of its kind in Latin Americ
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21.
Root Canal Therapy:FAQ
Root Canal Therapy:FAQOverview

A diseased or injured nerve use to mean that you were likely to lose a tooth. This is no longer the case thanks to root
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22.
ADHD - Are there Treatment Options?
ADHD - Are there Treatment Options?As an ADD coach I am often asked about the treatment options available for Attention Deficit Disorder. Generally when someone says "ADD" the f
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23.
7 Tips to Keep Your Fluid Down on Dialysis
7 Tips to Keep Your Fluid Down on DialysisAs any dialysis patient will tell you, keeping your fluid gain between dialysis sessions in check is not only important to your lon
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24.
Testosterone Therapy in XXI Century
Testosterone Therapy in XXI CenturyNowadays many people are familiar with the appellation of "low testosterone level". What does it mean? It mean that male body p
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25.
Stem Cell Research
Stem Cell ResearchHow To Buy Your Way Out Of An Early Death From An Incurable Disease.

How?... With private stem cell research, of course!?Stem cell research
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1.
Maharashtra woos medical tourists
Maharashtra woos medical touristsMany people from the developed world come to India for the rejuvenation promised by yoga and ayurvedic massage, but few consider it a de
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2.
Medical tourism: Need surgery, will travel
Maharashtra woos medical touristsA worldwide market

What's called medical tourism – patients going to a different country for either urgent or elective
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3.
Medical Tourism is Becoming a Huge Industry in India
Diatance LearningMany types of medical treatment in India cost a fraction of what they do in the United States and other Western nations, and citizens from these c
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4.
Medical tourism set to take off in a big way
Medical tourism set to take off in a big wayWith world class healthcare professionals, nursing care and treatment cost almost one-sixth of that in the developed
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5.
India eyeing share in medical tourism pie
India eyeing share in medical tourism pie A NICE blend of top-class medical expertise at attractive prices is helping a growing number of Indian corporate hospitals lure forei
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6.
Are we ready for medical tourism?
Are we ready for medical tourism? The private healthcare industry is quietly facilitating a revolution to enable India to emerge as a health destination. Yet there are the
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7.
Is medical tourism worth the risk?
Is medical tourism worth the risk?Thousands of Britons are heading abroad for cut-price treatment. We investigate the health tourism boom and asks if the benefits o
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8.
Package holiday surgery to beat NHS queue
Package holiday surgery to beat NHS queueA holiday firm is offering 'sun and surgery' package deals to India for patients tired of waiting for the NHS.

Th
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9.
Choosing the right weight loss surgery abroad
Choosing the right weight loss surgery abroadThe reluctance of public healthcare systems and health insurers to fund weight loss surgery means that more and more people are
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10.
The forgotten medical tourism destination
The forgotten medical tourism destinationAn article by medical tourism specialist, Ian Youngman, on one of the world’s leading destinations for medical travelers which seems
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11.
Why medical tourism needs facilitators
Why medical tourism needs facilitatorsFollowing our recent article on "How can patients judge quality in medical tourism?", Caroline Ratner spoke to Mike Silford, who run
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12.
How can patients judge quality in medical tourism?
How can patients judge quality in medical tourism?There's much discussion and hype around the medical tourism world about “quality”. Every hospital, clinic, healthcar
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13.
The importance of social media and the web in medical tourism
The importance of social media and the web in medical tourismMore than most other industries, medical tourism agencies and international patient departments rely heavily on t
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14.
Medical Tourism Destinations: Places That Top The Charts
Medical Tourism Destinations: Places That Top The ChartsMedical tourism is a popular trend among people in the US nowadays. Many Americans are moving abroad to get tr
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15.
Plastic & Cosmetic Surgery Option In Malaysia
Plastic & Cosmetic Surgery Option In MalaysiaMedical Tourism Malaysia is growing at an exponential growth factor. Its enjoying medical tourist from UK, Australia, New Zealand
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16.
Samitivej Medical Tourism, A Lucrative Business
Samitivej Medical Tourism, A Lucrative BusinessSamitivej Wins 2 Prestigious HMA Awards 2008 Path to Being the Largest Medical Tourism

Samitivej, a leading pri
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17.
Jordan pushes medical tourism industry
Jordan pushes medical tourism industryAfter establishing itself as a popular destination for medical care among Arabs in the Middle East, Jordan is now looking to attract more
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18.
Some Frequently Asked Questions about Medical Tourism
Some Frequently Asked Questions about Medical TourismWhat is the quality of care that I can expect? Most of the healthcare centers abroad such as hospitals clinics and diagnostic
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19.
Infertility Treatment in India
Infertility Treatment in IndiaInfertility is the inability to conceive a child by natural means. When a couple finds it difficult to conceive naturally, medication and spe
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20.
Medical Tourism Thailand
Medical Tourism ThailandThailand has been a popular holiday destination of the East which is now a popular medical tourism destination as well. The Thai medical service is on
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21.
Medical Tourism India
Medical Tourism IndiaA medical tourist in India can get the best of both worlds- excellent medical service from experts in the field of medicine and a splendid experience of a
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22.
Digitizing Medical Documents
Digitizing Medical DocumentsIt is a common fact that hospitals and doctors need a patient’s detailed medical history before treating them. But when you have travele
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23.
Roux-en-gastric bypass in India: An Overview
Roux-en-gastric bypass in India: An OverviewRoux-en-gastric bypass in India is very economical and affordable. Low cost but quality treatment attracts many patients of a
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24.
Need a dentist? Come to Croatia
Need a dentist? Come to Croatia







Croatia has decided to take an unconventional approach to tourism - with dentists taking
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25.
India offers hope for those too sick to wait
India offers hope for those too sick to waitEmerging into the teeming chaos of people, cows and honking vehicles outside Bangalore airport, retired teacher John Stauffer wonde
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elektronik sigara faydaları için bakın elektronik sigara fiyatları ve çeşitleri - www.elektriklisigara.org.
Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.
Authors: Tambo A, Roshan MH, Pace NP Abstract Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID: 27014372 [PubMed] ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Often seen, rarely recognized: mast cell activation disease - a guide to diagnosis and therapeutic options.
Authors: Afrin LB, H Butterfield J, Raithel M, J Molderings G Abstract Mast cell (MC) disease has long been thought to be just the rare disease of mastocytosis (in various forms, principally cutaneous and systemic), with aberrant MC mediator release at symptomatic levels due to neoplastic MC proliferation. Recent discoveries now show a new view is in order, with mastocytosis capping a metaphorical iceberg now called "MC activation disease" (MCAD, i.e. disease principally manifesting inappropriate MC activation), with the bulk of the iceberg being the recently recognized "MC activation syndrome" (MCAS), featuring inappropriate MC activation to symptomatic levels with little to no inappropriate MC proliferation. Given increasing appreciation of a great menagerie of mutations in MC re...


Redox signaling regulated by electrophiles and reactive sulfur species.
Authors: Nishida M, Kumagai Y, Ihara H, Fujii S, Motohashi H, Akaike T Abstract Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine ...


mTOR complex-2 stimulates acetyl-CoA and de novo lipogenesis through ATP citrate lyase in HER2/PIK3CA-hyperactive breast cancer.
Authors: Chen Y, Qian J, He Q, Zhao H, Toral-Barza L, Shi C, Zhang X, Wu J, Yu K Abstract The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major regulator of cell growth and is frequently dysregulated in cancer. While mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) is a validated cancer target, the role of mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) remains less defined. Here, we reveal mTORC2 as a critical regulator of breast cancer metabolism. We showed that hyperphosphorylation in ATP citrate lyase (ACL) occurs frequently in human breast tumors and correlates well with HER2+ and/or PIK3CA-mutant (HER2+/PIK3CAmut) status in breast tumor cell lines. In HER2+/PIK3CAmut cells, mTORC2 controls Ser-455 phosphorylation of ACL thereby promoting acetyl-CoA production, de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial physiology, all of which w...


shRNA targeting long non-coding RNA CCAT2 controlled by tetracycline-inducible system inhibits progression of bladder cancer cells.
Authors: Li J, Zhuang C, Liu Y, Chen M, Zhou Q, Chen Z, He A, Zhao G, Guo Y, Wu H, Cai Z, Huang W Abstract Recent reports show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as significant functional regulators in the development of tumors, including bladder cancer. Here, we found that CCAT2 was upregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. Through the statistical analyses, we also found that the high expression level of CCAT2 was positively correlated with histological grade and TNM stage of bladder cancer. Further experimental results revealed that knockdown of CCAT2 could decrease cell proliferation and migration as well as induce apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Besides, using the post-transcriptional device of synthetic biology, we create the tetracycline-inducible...


Effect of heat dissipation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic field on three human cancer cell lines in magnetic fluid hyperthermia.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the nanoparticle dose of 80 µg/ml with diameter of 8 nm at the resonance frequency of coil for 30 min was sufficient to destroy all the cancerous cells in the flask. PMID: 27015154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Illnesses caused by contact currents in showers.
Authors: Milham S, Stetzer D PMID: 27015014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine)


Influence of magnetostimulation therapy on rheological properties of blood in neurological patients.
Authors: Marcinkowska-Gapińska A, Kowal P Abstract The aim of the study is to test the influence of in vivo magnetostimulation on the rheological properties of blood in neurological patients. Blood circulation in the body depends both on the mechanical properties of the circulatory system and on the physical and physicochemical properties of blood. The main factors influencing the rheological properties of blood are as follows: hematocrit, plasma viscosity, whole-blood viscosity, red cells aggregability, deformability, and the ability of red cells to orient in the flow. The blood samples were collected from neurological patients with pain. Blood samples were collected twice from each patient, that is, before the magnetostimulation and immediately after the therapy. For each blood ...


Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on experimental pain: A double-blind, randomized study in healthy young adults.
Authors: Beaulieu K, Beland P, Pinard M, Handfield G, Handfield N, Goffaux P, Corriveau H, Léonard G Abstract Previous studies suggested that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy can decrease pain. To date, however, it remains difficult to determine whether the analgesic effect observed in patients are attributable to a direct effect of PEMF on pain or to an indirect effect of PEMF on inflammation and healing. In the present study, we used an experimental pain paradigm to evaluate the direct effect of PEMF on pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and temporal summation of pain. Twenty-four healthy subjects (mean age 22 ± 2 years; 9 males) participated in the experiment. Both real and sham PEMF were administered to every participant using a randomized, double-blind, cross-ov...


Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood.
Authors: Zangari A, Zaini J, Gulìa C Abstract Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor developmen...


A socioeconomic analysis of biocontrol in integrated pest management: A review of the effects of uncertainty, irreversibility and flexibility
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences Author(s): Emmanuel. O. Benjamin, Justus. H.H. Wesseler European regulations on the sustainable use of pesticides aim to promote integrated pest management (IPM) strategy and the use of biological control agents. However, uncertainty over benefits and costs, irreversibility effects as well as flexibility in adoption of this technology needs to be considered. Economic evaluation of IPM using simple cost-benefit analysis may be inadequate. Therefore, the need to develop evaluation tools that takes the aforementioned constraints into consideration is imperative. To this end, we introduce the maximum incremental social tolerable irreversible costs (MISTICs) as a tool for such evaluation. Only...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Effects of hyperthermia as a mitigation strategy in DNA damage-based cancer therapies
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Theodora Mantso, George Goussetis, Rodrigo Franco, Sotiris Botaitis, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis Panayiotidis Utilization of thermal therapy (hyperthermia) is defined as the application of exogenous heat induction and represents a concept that is far from new as it goes back to ancient times when heat was used for treating various diseases, including malignancies. Such therapeutic strategy has gained even more popularity (over the last few decades) since various studies have shed light into understanding hyperthermia's underlying molecular mechanism(s) of action. In general, hyperthermia is applied as complementary (adjuvant) means in therapeutic protocols combining chemotherapy and/or irradiati...


Vulnerability to climate change of Anolis allisoni in the mangrove habitats of Banco Chinchorro Islands, Mexico
We report field body (Tb) and preferred body temperatures in the laboratory (Tpref), operative temperatures (Te) and restriction of hours of activity. Anolis allisoni showed high and identical Tb and Tpref (33°C), not significantly different than the mean Te (32.15°C). The effectiveness of thermoregulation (E=−0.30) and the analysis of hours of restriction suggested that the high temperatures of Te (40 to 62.5°C) registered at midday (from 12:00 to 15:00) of A. allisoni habitat are hostile and force lizards to take refuge during a period of 3 h of their daily time of activity. The scarcity of opportunities to find alternative refuges for thermoregulation in Banco Chinchorro point out the vulnerability of A. allisoni and the risk of local extinction when considering future predictions ...


Thermal fluctuation within nests and predicted sex ratio of Morelet’s Crocodile
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Journal of Thermal Biology Author(s): Armando H. Escobedo-Galván, Marco A. López-Luna, Fabio G. Cupul-Magaña Understanding the interplay between thermal variations and sex ratio in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination is the first step for developing long-term conservation strategies. In case of crocodilians, the information is fragmentary and insufficient for establishing a general framework to consider how thermal fluctuation influence sex determination under natural conditions. The main goal of this study was to analyze thermal variation in nests of Crocodylus moreletii and to discuss the potential implications for predicting offspring sex ratio. The study was carried out at the Centro de Estudios Tecnológ...


Genetic mouse embryo assay: improving performance and quality testing for assisted reproductive technology (ART) with a functional bioassay.
CONCLUSIONS: This novel approach provides a superior MEA that is more meaningful and sensitive for detection of embryotoxicity than morphological assessment alone. PMID: 27009109 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reproductive Biology)


Scientists Build A Live, No-Frills Cell That Could Have A Big Future
A group of synthetic biologists report they've created an organism with a minimum number of genes required to survive and reproduce. (Source: NPR Health and Science)


MicroRNA‐122 Regulates Polyploidization in the Murine Liver
Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that miR‐122 is both necessary and sufficient in liver polyploidization. Among the different signals that have been associated with hepatic polyploidy, miR‐122 is the first liver‐specific signal identified. These studies will serve as the foundation for future work investigating miR‐122 in liver maturation, homeostasis and disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)


Flexible Spinal Implants Help Paralyzed Rats Walk Again
New type of device stretches with the body to reduce inflammation -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


Calendar
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Contents
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)


Editorial Advisory Board
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)


Masthead
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)


10 Years of DNA Origami
This article was reproduced with... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American Topic - Nanotechnology)


Mitochondrial dysfunctions in 7-ketocholesterol-treated 158N oligodendrocytes without or with α-tocopherol: Impacts on the cellular profil of tricarboxylic cycle-associated fatty acids, long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, oxysterols, cholesterol and cholesterol precursors
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): Valerio Leoni, Thomas Nury, Anne Vejux, Amira Zarrouk, Claudio Caccia, Meryam Debbabi, Agnès Fromont, Randa Sghaier, Thibault Moreau, Gérard Lizard In multiple sclerosis (MS) a process of white matter degradation leading to demyelination is observed. Oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, necrosis and/or autophagy result together into a progressive loss of oligodendrocytes. 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), found increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients, triggers a rupture of RedOx homeostasis associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, aptoptosis and autophagy (oxiapoptophagy) in cultured murine oligodendrocytes (158N). α-tocopherol is able to m...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Role of patulin in post-harvest diseases
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Fungal Biology Reviews Author(s): Shiri Barad, Edward Sionov, Dov Prusky Storage of freshly harvested deciduous fruits is a key factor in modulating their supply for several months after harvest. Penicillium expansum is a post-harvest pathogen that colonises these fruit during storage, having penetrated the fruit through wounds incurred at harvest. The fungus macerates the host tissue during the long periods of storage and simultaneously accumulates significant amounts of the mycotoxin patulin. Fungal decay is a concern for both retailers and consumers, due to the presence of mycotoxins that may appear in fresh fruit as well in their derived products, and patulin levels are therefore monitored. Patulin is a toxic secondary metabo...


Budget-limited thermal biology: design, construction and performance of a large, walk-in style temperature-controlled chamber
We describe a partial redesign of the conventional air-conditioning system and apply it to the construction of a relatively large (1.87 m3 air mass), walk-in style temperature-controlled chamber (TCC) using parts easily obtained in most countries. We conducted several tests to demonstrate the performance of the TCC. Across the physiologically relevant range of 5-37°C, the TCC took 26.5-50.0min to reach the desired set point temperature. Once at set point, temperature inside the chamber was controlled with an accuracy of ±1.0°C. User-entry effects on deviations from and return times to set point temperature were minimal. Overall, performance of the TCC was sufficient to make precise physiological measurements of insect metabolic rate while controlling assay temperature. Major advantages ...


Grinding and polishing instead of sectioning for the tissue samples with a graft: Implications for light and electron microscopy
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Micron, Volume 85 Author(s): Rinat A. Mukhamadiyarov, Victoria V. Sevostyanova, Daria K. Shishkova, Andrey V. Nokhrin, Olga D. Sidorova, Anton G. Kutikhin A broad use of the graft replacement requires a detailed investigation of the host-graft interaction, including both histological examination and electron microscopy. A high quality sectioning of the host tissue with a graft seems to be complicated; in addition, it is difficult to examine the same tissue area by both of the mentioned microscopy techniques. To solve these problems, we developed a new technique of epoxy resin embedding with the further grinding, polishing, and staining. Graft-containing tissues prepared by grinding and polishing preserved their structure; however, sectioning frequ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Dual Targeted Poplar Ferredoxin NADP+ Oxidoreductase Interacts with Hemoglobin 1
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Plant Science Author(s): Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, Alexander J. Kastaniotis, Vimal Parkash, Robin Sundström, Nélida Leiva-Eriksson, Yvonne Nymalm, Olga Blokhina, Eija Kukkola, Kurt V. Fagerstedt, Tiina A. Salminen, Esa Läärä, Leif Bülow, Steffen Ohlmeier, J.Kalervo Hiltunen, Pauli T. Kallio, Hely Häggman Previous reports have connected non-symbiotic and truncated hemoglobins (Hbs) to metabolism of nitric oxide (NO), an important signalling molecule involved in wood formation. We have studied the capability of poplar (Populus tremula x tremuloides) Hbs PttHb1 and PttTrHb proteins alone or with a flavin-protein reductase to relieve NO cytotoxicity in living cells. Complementation tests in a Hb-deficient, NO-sensiti...


The response of mesophyll conductance to nitrogen and water availability differs between wheat genotypes.
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Plant Science Author(s): Margaret M. Barbour, Brent N. Kaiser Increased mesophyll conductance (gm) has been suggested as a target for selection for high productivity and high water-use efficiency in crop plants, and genotypic variability in gm has been reported in several important crop species. However, effective selection requires an understanding of how gm varies with growth conditions, to ensure that the ranking of genotypes is consistent across environments. We assessed the genotypic variability in gm and other leaf gas exchange traits, as well as growth and biomass allocation for six wheat genotypes under different water and nitrogen availabilities. The wheat genotypes differed in their response of gm to growth conditions, r...


Chemical composition antibacterial and antifungal activities of flowerhead and root essential oils of Santolina chamaecyparissus L., growing wild in Tunisia
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences Author(s): Karima Bel Hadj Salah-Fatnassi, Faten Hassayoun, Imed Cheraif, Saba Khan, Hichem Ben Jannet, Mohamed Hammami, Mahjoub Aouni, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri The antimicrobial properties of essential oil from various Santolina species have not been enough investigated in the previous studies dealing with the biological activities of medicinal plants. In Tunisia, Santolina chamaecyparissus L. (Asteraceae) is the only Santolina species recorded and is used as vermifuge and emmanagogue. The chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils from the flowerheads and roots of spontaneous S. chamaecyparissus growing in Tunisia and the chemical composition which le...


Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhizopus stolonifer
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences Author(s): Khalid AbdelRahim, Sabry Younis Mahmoud, Ahmed Mohamed Ali Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become a necessary field of applied science. Biological method for synthesis of AgNPs by Rhizopus stolonifer aqueous mycelial extract was used. The AgNPs were identified by UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). The presence of surface plasmon band around 420nm indicates AgNPs formation. The characteristic of the AgNPs within the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are indicated by the peaks of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200) and (220) planes....


Soil microbial carbon use efficiency and biomass turnover in a long-term fertilization experiment in a temperate grassland
In conclusion, the study shows that N availability can control soil C cycling by affecting microbial CUE, while plant community-mediated changes in organic matter inputs and P and K availability played no important role for C partitioning of the microbial community in this temperate grassland. (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Aims and Methods of Biosteganography
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Journal of Biotechnology Author(s): Tyler D.P. Brunet Applications of biotechnology to information security are now possible and have potentially far reaching political and technological implications. This change in information security practices, initiated by advancements in molecular biological and biotechnology, warrants reasonable and widespread consideration by biologists, biotechnologists and philosophers. I offer an explication of the landmark contributions, developments and current possibilities of biosteganography—the process of transmitting secure messages via biological mediums. I address, i) how information can be stored and encoded in biological mediums, ii) how biological mediums (e.g. DNA, RNA, protein) and storage...


RNA metabolism and regulation of virulence programs in fungi
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell &amp; Developmental Biology Author(s): Ane Sesma The development of RNA imaging techniques and the establishment of systems biology approaches, together with the improvement of large-scale RNA-protein crosslinking immunoprecipitation protocols have enormously expanded our knowledge of RNA networks and the function of RNA-binding proteins in metazoans and model yeasts. In pathogenic fungi, the biological role of the vast majority of RNA-binding proteins and non-coding RNAs is still largely unknown. However, many RNA-dependent mechanisms which shape fungal pathogenicity have been defined. Here, advances made in this field are reviewed and further theories of biological significance are discussed in the light of l...


Chemotherapy versus Hypomethylating Agents for the Treatment of Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant: A Retrospective Review
Allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for high risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). For patients with relapsed disease after transplant intensive chemotherapy followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) or a second allo-SCT may result in a durable response in some patients. High intensity chemotherapy and less aggressive therapy with hypomethylating agents (HA) with and without DLI are often used for post allo-SCT relapse. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)


Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: From the origin of the cell to targeted therapies; Review
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematological malignancy with an aggressive clinical course. It is grouped with acute myeloid leukemia-related precursor neoplasms in the 2008 World Health Organization classification. Most patients with BPDCN have skin lesions at diagnosis and subsequent or simultaneous involvement of the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and lymph nodes. Patients usually respond to initial chemotherapy but often relapse. Stem cell transplant may improve survival. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Clinical feasibility of Axillary Reverse Mapping and its influence on breast cancer related lymphedema: a systematic review
Publication date: May 2016 Source:European Journal of Obstetrics &amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 200 Author(s): Nick Gebruers, Wiebren A.A. Tjalma Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Fortunately, the overall survival is good. Therefore it is important to focus on the morbidities related to breast cancer treatment. One of the most dreaded morbidities is lymphedema. In 2007 the Axillary Reverse Mapping (ARM) was introduced to limit the invasiveness in the axilla during breast cancer surgery. It is hypothesized that ARM is able to limit the incidence of breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) considerably. This systematic review aims to answer the following research questions: (1) which approaches for ARM are described? (2) Is ARM surgical...


The Biology of Stature
Most pediatricians are attuned to their patients' linear growth (height gain). At each visit, the child's height should be carefully measured and plotted. The clinician can then scrutinize the temporal pattern, and, if the linear growth appears abnormal, initiate an investigation to uncover the underlying problem. Despite this close interest in our patients' statural gains, linear growth itself often is considered as a “black box,” a mysterious process regulated by nutrition, hormones, genetics, and overall health. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)


Post-Operative Spine Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT): A critical review to guide practice
Post-operative stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastatic spinal tumors is increasingly being performed in clinical practice. Whereas the fundamentals of SBRT practice for intact spinal metastases are established, there are as yet no comprehensive practice guidelines for the post-operative indication. In particular, there are unique considerations for patient selection and treatment planning specific to post-operative spine SBRT that are critical for safe and effective management. The purpose of this critical review is to discuss the rationale for treatment, describe those factors impacting surgical decision making, introduce modern surgical trends, and summarize treatment outcomes for both conventional post-operative conventional external beam radiotherapy and post-operative spi...


Carbohydrate changes during growth and fruiting in Pleurotus ostreatus
In this study the carbohydrate distribution in the compost and fruiting bodies of Pleurotus spp. was analysed. Sugar, polyol, polysaccharide and chitin content during different growth phases and in different regions of the mushroom were determined. Results indicate that trehalose, mannitol and glucose were first accumulated in the compost and then decreased during differentiation and growth of fruiting bodies. Meanwhile, trehalose, mannitol and glucose also accumulated in the fruiting bodies and primarily distributed in the stipe, base and pileus region respectively. Polysaccharides mainly accumulated within the pileus and stipe regions, and chitin was mainly observed in the base region. These findings provide insights into carbohydrate function and utilisation during mushroom growth. (Sou...


Intra-population dental morphological variability among the Prehispanic Maya
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology Author(s): A. Cucina The present paper proposes a new approach to the estimation of intra-site variability of dental morphological traits when they are dichotomized into presence vs absence. It rests on the assumption that 1) higher intra-site variability is the expression of intense population dynamics and gene flow; and 2) maximum variability is reached when each trait is expressed in the population with a frequency of 50%. The approach simulates the calculation of frequency of heterozygotes in Mendelian traits (2xiyi), where xi and yi are the frequency of presence and absence of the trait. For every population, the final value corresponds to the average of (2xiyi) calculated from all t...


Turgidity-dependent petiole flexibility enables efficient water use by a tree subjected to water stress
We present an analytical model coupling petiole mechanics, thermal balance, and xylem hydraulics to investigate the role of petiole flexibility in protecting a tree from water stress. Our model suggests that turgidity-dependent petiole flexibility can significantly attenuate the minimal xylem pressure and thus reduce the risk of cavitation. Moreover, we show that petiole flexibility increases water use efficiency by trees under water stress. (Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology)


Mem-ADSVM: A two-layer multi-label predictor for identifying multi-functional types of membrane proteins
Publication date: 7 June 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 398 Author(s): Shibiao Wan, Man-Wai Mak, Sun-Yuan Kung Identifying membrane proteins and their multi-functional types is an indispensable yet challenging topic in proteomics and bioinformatics. However, most of the existing membrane-protein predictors have the following problems: (1) they do not predict whether a given protein is a membrane protein or not; (2) they are limited to predicting membrane proteins with single-label functional types but ignore those with multi-functional types; and (3) there is still much room for improvement for their performance. To address these problems, this paper proposes a two-layer multi-label predictor, namely Mem-ADSVM, which can identify membrane proteins (Layer I) and the...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Corrigendum to “Monte Carlo simulations of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates from surface to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit”
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Life Sciences in Space Research Author(s): Samy El-Jaby A recent paper published in Life Sciences in Space Research (El-Jaby and Richardson, 2015) presented estimates of the secondary neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates, in air, from surface altitudes up to suborbital altitudes and low Earth orbit. These estimates were based on MCNPX (LANL, 2011) (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) radiation transport simulations of galactic cosmic radiation passing through Earth's atmosphere. During a recent review of the input decks used for these simulations, a systematic error was discovered that is addressed here. After reassessment, the neutron ambient and effective dose equivalent rates estimated are found to be 10 to 15% diffe...


Normalization and integration of large-scale metabolomics data using support vector regression
Conclusion SVR normalization can effectively remove the unwanted intra- and inter-batch variations, and is much better than other common normalization methods. (Source: Metabolomics)


Chaos based crossover and mutation for securing DICOM image
This paper proposes a novel encryption scheme based on combining multiple chaotic maps to ensure the safe transmission of medical images. The proposed scheme uses three chaotic maps namely logistic, tent and sine maps. To achieve an efficient encryption, the proposed chao-cryptic system employs a bio-inspired crossover and mutation units to confuse and diffuse the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image pixels. The crossover unit extensively permutes the image pixels row-wise and column-wise based on the chaotic key streams generated from the Combined Logistic-Tent (CLT) system. (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)


Segmentation of the spinous process and its acoustic shadow in vertebral ultrasound images
Spinal ultrasound imaging is emerging as a low-cost, radiation-free alternative to conventional X-ray imaging for the clinical follow-up of patients with scoliosis. Currently, deformity measurement relies almost entirely on manual identification of key vertebral landmarks. However, the interpretation of vertebral ultrasound images is challenging, primarily because acoustic waves are entirely reflected by bone. To alleviate this problem, we propose an algorithm to segment these images into three regions: the spinous process, its acoustic shadow and other tissues. (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Correction.
Authors: PMID: 27010028 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)


Endothelium.
Authors: Boulanger CM PMID: 27010027 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)


Vessels With Cingulin Are Leakproof.
Authors: Givens C, Tzima E PMID: 27010026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)


Aminoacyl-Transfer RNA Synthetases: Connecting Nutrient Status to Angiogenesis Through the Unfolded Protein Response.
Authors: Lounsbury KM, Francklyn CS PMID: 27010025 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)


Clarity on the Isoform-Specific Roles of NADPH Oxidases and NADPH Oxidase-4 in Atherosclerosis.
Authors: Fulton DJ, Barman SA PMID: 27010024 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


What Can The Evolution Of Our Sleep Habits Teach Us?
When Amy Ozski started experiencing insomnia last August, it wasn't due to anything drastic. She recalls a heat wave in the Boston area where she lives, a bit more stress at work, and her schedule being thrown off for a few consecutive days. But the combination was enough to trigger a pattern: Ozski started having trouble falling asleep, and before long the problem snowballed into a chronic issue. Sometimes it would take her hours to fall asleep, or she'd wake up in the middle of the night and struggle to conk out again. Sleep -- and the lack of it -- took over her life. "It was all I thought about during the day," she says. "I was miserable." Ozski tried everything she could think of to fix the problem, from transcendental meditation to acupuncture, but to no avail. Finally, she sought he...


Consider This Before You Sign Up For A HIIT Class
High-intensity workouts are all the rage, and for good reason: They burn more calories than standard cardio, can boost your endurance and and increase the elasticity of your arteries and veins, which is really terrific for your heart. But according to a new study published in Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, for all of HIIT's benefits, there's a catch: The workout could do more harm than good if you're new to exercise.&#160; (Don't try that at home.) Researchers at the University of British Columbia found that their experiment's non-athlete participants showed signs of stress in their muscle tissues after high-intensity leg and arm cycling workouts, which is normal in any exercise. But then the researchers noticed that these participants had a decreased a...


The Icy Fire Beneath Norway's Seabed
This article originally appeared on&#160;Arctic&#160;Deeply. For weekly updates about Arctic geopolitics, economy, and ecology, you can&#160;sign up to the Arctic&#160;Deeply&#160;email list. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)


Thymidylate Synthase Enhancer Region: Novel Allele in Indians.
This study identified a novel single repeat in the TYMS gene which might have an impact on the expression of this gene, which needs to be confirmed by functional studies. PMID: 27009482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Human Biology)


Biologists discover sophisticated 'alarm' signals in honey bees
Bees can use sophisticated signals to warn their nestmates about the level of danger from predators attacking foragers or the nest, according to a new study. Biologists found that an Asian species of honey bee can produce different types of vibrational 'stop signals' when attacked by giant Asian hornets. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Why Some People Believe In Horoscopes
Many people look forward to their weekly horoscope, using their astrological sign predictions as a guide for what's to come. The genius behind astrology readings is that they are vague enough to be ascribed to virtually any personality and life. An astrological reading is almost like mad libs: It provides the structure, but you fill in the blanks. So no matter how real a horoscope prediction may seem, astrology is not scientific, as the Asap Thought video&#160;above explains. That said, research&#160;has found that our birth months can affect our biology. (Go ahead, tell someone that they seem like such a "summer baby.")&#160; Are you a believer? Let us know below.&#160; -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Evaluation of DNA damage induced by Auger electrons from (137)Cs.
CONCLUSIONS: The result supports the existing perception that the biological effects by internal and external exposure by (137)Cs are equivalent. PMID: 27010691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)


Triple targeting of Auger emitters using octreotate conjugated to a DNA-binding ligand and a nuclear localizing signal.
CONCLUSIONS: The DNA-binding properties of PNO and its affinity for SSTR suggests that it could potentially be used for tumour-specific delivery of PIH labelled with an Auger emitter in SSTR expressing tumours. PMID: 27010622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)


Hypoxia-inducible proteins HIF1α and lactate dehydrogenase LDH5, key markers of anaerobic metabolism, relate with stem cell markers and poor post-radiotherapy outcome in bladder cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: HIF1α and LDH5 are markers of poor outcome in patients with bladder cancer treated with radiotherapy. Blockage of anaerobic metabolism may prove of importance in clinical radiotherapy. PMID: 27010533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)


A stochastic cascade model for Auger-electron emitting radionuclides.
Authors: Lee BQ, Nikjoo H, Ekman J, Jönsson P, Stuchbery AE, Kibédi T Abstract To benchmark a Monte Carlo model of the Auger cascade that has been developed at the Australian National University (ANU) against the literature data. The model is applicable to any Auger-electron emitting radionuclide with nuclear structure data in the format of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). Schönfeld's algorithms and the BrIcc code were incorporated to obtain initial vacancy distributions due to electron capture (EC) and internal conversion (IC), respectively. Atomic transition probabilities were adopted from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL) for elements with atomic number, Z = 1-100. Atomic transition energies were evaluated using a relativistic Dirac-Fock method. A...


Disruption of the ovarian follicle reservoir of prepubertal rats following prenatal exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field.
Authors: Türedi S, Hancı H, Çolakoğlu S, Kaya H, Odacı E Abstract The effects on human health of electromagnetic field (EMF) have begun to be seriously questioned with the entry into daily life of devices establishing EMF, such as cell phones, wireless fidelity, and masts. Recent studies have reported that exposure to EMF, particularly during pregnancy, affects the developing embryo/fetus. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of exposure to continuous 900-Megahertz (MHz) EMF applied in the prenatal period on ovarian follicle development and oocyte differentiation. Six pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into a non-exposed control group (CNGr) and a group (EMFGr) exposed to continuous 900-MHz EMF for 1 h daily, at the same time every day, o...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: current evidence on clinicopathologic features and molecular biology.
Authors: Wang X, Cheng W, Liu C, Li J Abstract Tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been recognized for the past few decades as an entity showing aggressive biological behavior; however, there is considerable controversy regarding the definition, clinical and pathological features of TCV because of its rarity and difficult diagnosis. No clinical features can accurately diagnose TCV. Thus, the results of histocytology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics tests have important clinical implications for diagnosis. Given the aggressiveness and the increased recurrence and poor survival rates, more aggressive treatment approach and rigorous follow-up is required for patients with TCV. In the present article, we undertook a comprehensive review to summa...


CHIP: A new modulator of human malignant disorders.
Authors: Cao Z, Li G, Shao Q, Yang G, Zheng L, Zhang T, Zhao Y Abstract Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is known as a chaperone-associated E3 for a variety of protein substrates. It acts as a link between molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome system. Involved in the process of protein clearance, CHIP plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis in diverse conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of our current understanding of CHIP and summarize recent advances in CHIP biology, with a focus on CHIP in the setting of malignancies. PMID: 27007160 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)


Molecular and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 /bFGF) in malignancies of solid and hematological cancers for personalized therapies.
Authors: Akl MR, Nagpal P, Ayoub NM, Tai B, Prabhu SA, Capac CM, Gliksman M, Goy A, Suh KS Abstract Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for normal and cancer biology. Mammalian FGF family members participate in multiple signaling pathways by binding to heparan sulfate and FGF receptors (FGFR) with varying affinities. FGF2 is the prototype member of the FGF family and interacts with its receptor to mediate receptor dimerization, phosphorylation, and activation of signaling pathways, such as Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways. Excessive mitogenic signaling through the FGF/FGFR axis may induce carcinogenic effects by promoting cancer progression and increasing the angiogenic potential, which can lead to metastatic tumor phenotypes. Dysregulated FGF/FGFR signaling is associat...


Cell line with endogenous EGFRvIII expression is a suitable model for research and drug development purposes.
Authors: Stec WJ, Rosiak K, Siejka P, Peciak J, Popeda M, Banaszczyk M, Pawlowska R, Treda C, Hulas-Bigoszewska K, Piaskowski S, Stoczynska-Fidelus E, Rieske P Abstract Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain tumor, characterized by high cellular heterogeneity. About 50% of glioblastomas are positive for EGFR amplification, half of which express accompanying EGFR mutation, encoding truncated and constitutively active receptor termed EGFRvIII. Currently, no cell models suitable for development of EGFRvIII-targeting drugs exist, while the available ones lack the intratumoral heterogeneity or extrachromosomal nature of EGFRvIII.The reports regarding the biology of EGFRvIII expressed in the stable cell lines are often contradictory in observations and conclusions. In the pr...


Protein Phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent 1A controls the innate antiviral and antibacterial response of macrophages during HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
Authors: Sun J, Schaaf K, Duverger A, Wolschendorf F, Speer A, Wagner F, Niederweis M, Kutsch O Abstract Co-infection with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a major public health issue. While some research has described how each pathogen accelerates the course of infection of the other pathogen by compromising the immune system, very little is known about the molecular biology of HIV-1/Mtb co-infection at the host cell level. This is somewhat surprising, as both pathogens are known to replicate and persist in macrophages. We here identify Protein Phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent 1A (PPM1A) as a molecular link between Mtb infection and increased HIV-1 susceptibility of macrophages. We demonstrate that both Mtb and HIV-1 infection induce the expression of PPM1A in primary...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


CodHonEditor: Spreadsheets for Codon Optimization and Editing of Protein Coding Sequences.
Authors: Takai K Abstract Gene synthesis is getting more important with the growing availability of low-cost commercial services. The coding sequences are often "optimized" as for the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) before synthesis, which is generally included in the commercial services. However, the codon optimization processes are different among different providers and are often hidden from the users. Here, the d'Hondt method, which is widely adopted as a method for determining the number of seats for each party in proportional-representation public elections, is applied to RSCU fitting. This allowed me to make a set of electronic spreadsheets for manual design of protein coding sequences for expression in Escherichia coli, with which users can see the process of codon o...


Nicotinamide Cofactors Suppress Active-Site Labeling of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00784 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)


Stripped-Down Synthetic Organism Has Smallest Genome Yet
This study is definitely trying to understand a minimal basis of life," said Venter. But the researchers said that even with such a simple organism, that understanding remained elusive. They noted that even though their organism has so few genes, they were still uncertain about the function of nearly a third of them, even after more than five years of work. The researchers predicted their work would yield practical applications in developing new medicines, biochemicals, biofuels and in agriculture. "Our long-term vision has been to design and build synthetic organisms on demand where you can add in specific functions and predict what the outcome is going to be," said Daniel Gibson, vice president for DNA technologies at Synthetic Genomics Inc, the company handling commercial applications f...


Introduction to Cheminformatics.
Authors: Wishart DS Abstract Cheminformatics is a field of information technology that focuses on the collection, storage, analysis, and manipulation of chemical data. The chemical data of interest typically includes information on small molecule formulas, structures, properties, spectra, and activities (biological or industrial). Cheminformatics originally emerged as a vehicle to help the drug discovery and development process, however cheminformatics now plays an increasingly important role in many areas of biology, chemistry, and biochemistry. The intent of this unit is to give readers some introduction into the field of cheminformatics and to show how cheminformatics not only shares many similarities with the field of bioinformatics, but also enhances much of what is currently ...


Mar 25 Cardiology News Mar 25 Cardiology News
Broken-heart syndrome, anticoagulation underuse, polypharmacy in the elderly, hematoma after device implants and new findings in HDL biology are reviewed by Dr John Mandrola in this week's podcast. theheart.org on Medscape (Source: Medscape Cardiology Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Expressional characterization of mRNA (guanine-7) methyltransferase (rnmt) during early development of Xenopus laevis.
Authors: Lokapally A, Metikala S, Hollemann T Abstract Methylation of the guanosine cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is essential for efficient translation of all eukaryotic cellular mRNAs, gene expression and cell viability and promotes transcription, splicing, polyadenylation and nuclear export of mRNA. In the current study, we present the spatial expression pattern of the Xenopus laevis rnmt homologue. A high percentage of protein sequence similarity, especially within the methyltransferase domain, as well as an increased expression in the cells of the transcriptionally active stages, suggests a conserved RNA cap methylation function. Spatial expression analysis identified expression domains in the brain, the retina, the lens, the otic vesicles and the branchial arches. P...


Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.
Authors: Mukendi C, Dean N, Lala R, Smith J, Bronner ME, Nikitina NV Abstract Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversif...


In Memoriam - Prof. G. Barry Pierce (1925-2015).
Authors: Damjanov I Abstract Gordon Barry Pierce, my great mentor and long-time friend died in November 2015 at the age of 90 years. We will all miss him. What we are left with, however, are reminiscences of moments we spent with him, his jokes and stories to be retold and passed along, titbits of advice, and pearls of his common-sense Canadian wisdom. A vision of a better world to which he contributed so much. Scientific contributions too numerous to list, many of which had major impact on us who were interested in the same problems as he was. Seminal discoveries that impacted the progress in several fields of scientific endeavor. Major new concepts of oncology and developmental biology that opened new vistas and revolutionized our thinking about the crucial problems of biology an...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Contact Lenses: A Delivery Device for Stem Cells to Treat Corneal Blindness
Worldwide, 45 million people are blind. Corneal blindness is a major cause of visual loss, estimated to affect 10 million. For the most difficult to treat patients, including those with a disease called limbal stem cell deficiency, a donor corneal graft is not a viable option; thus, patients are treated with specialized stem cell grafts, which fail in a significant proportion (30 to 50%) of subjects. This unacceptable failure rate means there is a pressing need to develop minimally invasive, long-lasting, cost-effective therapies to improve patient quality of life and lessen the economic burden. Restoring vision in patients with severe corneal disease is the main focus of our research program; however, to achieve our goals and deliver the best quality stem cell therapy, we must first under...


South Lake Union's surprise: There is more collaboration there than you'd think
When I first moved to Seattle, my office was in South Lake Union. I was next door to Amazon (Nasdaq: AMZN) and down the street from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Juno Therapeutics, the Allen Institute for Brain Science and the Institute for Systems Biology. Stepping into my new role as health care reporter in what has become known as "Cloud City" shortly after President Barack Obama challenged the country to find a cure to cancer, I learned quickly that scientists at all these institutions… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)


Birds Benefit When Gators Guard
And so do the alligators&mdash;they protect bird nests from egg-stealing raccoons and other predators, but they don&rsquo;t work for free. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


Mapping neurogenesis onset in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurobiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Designing an Antibody-Based Chaperoning System through Programming the Binding and Release of the Folding Intermediate
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00191 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)


Scientists Want To Turn Guantanamo Bay Into A Research Park
In the wake of President Barack Obama's historic&#160;visit to Cuba, questions remain about America's changing relationship with the island nation.&#160;Chief among those: What will happen to Guantanamo Bay? The question has become a sticking point in negotiations between the two countries.&#160;For Cuban President Ra&#250;l Castro, returning Guantanamo Bay to Cuba is a&#160;sine qua non&#160;for a full rapprochement.&#160; "In order to move forward towards normalization, it will also be necessary to return the territory illegally occupied by Guantanamo Naval Base," Castro told reporters in a press conference with Obama on Monday, according to Time magazine.&#160; For its part, the U.S. has made it clear that returning Guantanamo is not up for discussion, at least for now. But scientists h...


Role of Growth Factors in Modulation of the Microvasculature in Adult Skeletal Muscle.
Authors: Smythe G Abstract Post-natal skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue that has the capacity to regenerate rapidly following injury, and to undergo significant modification in tissue mass (i.e. atrophy/hypertrophy) in response to global metabolic changes. These processes are reliant largely on soluble factors that directly modulate muscle regeneration and mass. However, skeletal muscle function also depends on an adequate blood supply. Thus muscle regeneration and changes in muscle mass, particularly hypertrophy, also demand rapid changes in the microvasculature. Recent evidence clearly demonstrates a critical role for soluble growth factors in the tight regulation of angiogenic expansion of the muscle microvasculature. Furthermore, exogenous modulation of these factors h...


Adipokines in Healthy Skeletal Muscle and Metabolic Disease.
Authors: Coles CA Abstract Adipose tissue not only functions as a reserve to store energy but has become of major interest as an endocrine organ, releasing signalling molecules termed adipokines which impact on other tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Adipocytes, within skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, secrete adipokines to finely maintain the balance between feed intake and energy expenditure. This book chapter focuses on the three adipokines, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6, which have potent effects on skeletal muscle during rest and exercise. Similarly, adiponectin, leptin and IL-6 enhance glucose uptake and increase fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Fatty acid oxidation is increased through activation of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling) ...


The TGF-β Signalling Network in Muscle Development, Adaptation and Disease.
Authors: Chen JL, Colgan TD, Walton KL, Gregorevic P, Harrison CA Abstract Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable ability to change its size and force-producing capacity in response to physiological stimuli. Impairment of the cellular processes that govern these attributes also affects muscle mass and function in pathological conditions. Myostatin, a member of the TGF-β family, has been identified as a key regulator of muscle development, and adaptation in adulthood. In muscle, myostatin binds to its type I (ALK4/5) and type II (ActRIIA/B) receptors to initiate Smad2/3 signalling and the regulation of target genes that co-ordinate the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Interestingly, evidence is emerging that other TGF-β proteins act in concert with myostatin to reg...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Function of Membrane-Associated Proteoglycans in the Regulation of Satellite Cell Growth.
Authors: Song Y Abstract Muscle growth can be divided into embryonic and postnatal periods. During the embryonic period, mesenchymal stem cells proliferate and differentiate to form muscle fibers. Postnatal muscle growth (hypertrophy) is characterized by the enlargement of existing muscle fiber size. Satellite cells (also known as adult myoblasts) are responsible for hypertrophy. The activity of satellite cells can be regulated by their extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is composed of collagens, proteoglycans, non-collagenous glycoproteins, cytokines and growth factors. Proteoglycans contain a central core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycans (GAGs: chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate) and N- or O-linked glycosylation chains....


The Role of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Growth, Injury and Disease.
This article will discuss the shared and distinct processes that LIFR cytokines regulate in a variety of experimental models with the common theme of skeletal muscle physiology. PMID: 27003396 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)


Cytokine Mediated Control of Muscle Stem Cell Function.
Authors: Joanisse S, Parise G Abstract Skeletal muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SC), are an absolute requirement for muscle regeneration and contribute significantly to post-natal muscle growth. This stem cell population is governed by a network of transcription factors collectively referred to as the myogenic regulatory factors. These factors are responsible for the progression of a SC from the quiescent state through activation, proliferation and terminal differentiation in a process referred to as the myogenic programme. At each stage in this process, cytokines and growth factors have been shown to play a role in directing the myogenic response. The myogenic programme is complex and requires input from a host of factors that provide both stimulatory and inhibitory s...


Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Satellite Cell Activation.
Authors: Anderson JE Abstract Satellite cells are the "currency" for the muscle growth that is critical to meat production in many species, as well as to phenotypic distinctions in development at the level of species or taxa, and for human muscle growth, function and regeneration. Careful research on the activation and behaviour of satellite cells, the stem cells in skeletal muscle, including cross-species comparisons, has potential to reveal the mechanisms underlying pathological conditions in animals and humans, and to anticipate implications of development, evolution and environmental change on muscle function and animal performance. PMID: 27003394 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)


Look, no hands: Steller’s sea cow
The extinct Steller’s sea cow has much to marvel at, including its size, jaws and apparently “fingerless” forelimbsName: Furuhjelm’s sea cowSpecies: Hydrodamalis gigas Dates: Unknown Claim to fame: One of the most complete skeletons of the extinct Stellar’s sea cow Where now: Finnish Museum of Natural History, HelsinkiOne of the most prized specimens at the Finnish Museum of Natural History in Helsinki is a near-complete skeleton of a Steller’s sea cow, a fascinating creature that went extinct around 250 years ago. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Dendritic Cells in the Context of Human Tumors: Biology and Experimental Tools.
Authors: Volovitz I, Melzer S, Amar S, Bocsi J, Bloch M, Efroni S, Ram Z, Tárnok A Abstract Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent and versatile antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the immune system. DC have an exceptional ability to comprehend the immune context of a captured antigen based on molecular signals identified from its vicinity. The analyzed information is then conveyed to other immune effector cells. Such capability enables DC to play a pivotal role in mediating either an immunogenic response or immune tolerance towards an acquired antigen. This review summarizes current knowledge on DC in the context of human tumors. It covers the basics of human DC biology, elaborating on the different markers, morphology and function of the different subsets of human DC. Human bloo...


In This Issue: On Biology of Dendritic Cells and B Cells.
Authors: Bot A PMID: 27007189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)


Relaxin deficiency results in increased expression of angiogenesis- and remodelling-related genes in the uterus of early pregnant mice but does not affect endometrial angiogenesis prior to implantation.
CONCLUSIONS: Relaxin treatment modulates expression of a variety of angiogenesis-related genes in HES cells. However, despite accelerated uterine gene expression of steroid receptor, progesterone and angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling genes in Rln-/- mice, there was no impact on angiogenesis. We conclude that although relaxin deficiency results in phenotypic changes in the pre-implantation uterus, endogenous relaxin does not play a major role in pre-implantation angiogenesis in the mouse uterus. PMID: 27005936 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reproductive Biology)


Ectopic pregnancy risk factors for ART patients undergoing the GnRH antagonist protocol: a retrospective study.
CONCLUSION: Excessive ovarian response, IVF (as opposed to ICSI), prior Cesarean section and GnRH agonist trigger were found to be independent risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Caution should be exercised before incorporating the GnRH agonist trigger for indications other than preventing OHSS. When excessive ovarian response leads to utilization of GnRH agonist trigger, strategies for preventing ectopic pregnancy, such as a freeze all policy or blastocyst transfer, should be considered. Further studies should elucidate whether adjusting the luteal support can reduce the ectopic pregnancy risk. PMID: 27005813 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Reproductive Biology)


Simulation shows how modern interventions can affect tropical forests and indigenous people
(Stanford University) A computer simulation shows that carefully designing government interactions with rural indigenous people is critical for protecting the sustainability of people, wildlife and the land. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


New insights into human tears could lead to more comfortable contact lenses
(Stanford University) Chemical engineers at Stanford have discovered mechanical properties of the tear film on the eye's surface that can be used to manufacture contact lenses that more closely mimic the eye. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Micro-sanctuaries key to survival of wildlife in human-dominated landscapes
(Wildlife Conservation Society) A new study by a team of researchers from the Centre for Ecological Sciences at the Indian Institute of Science, Manipal University, Centre for Wildlife Studies and the Wildlife Conservation Society-India, says that maintaining even the tiniest wildlife sanctuaries will help preserve some biodiversity in increasingly urbanized landscapes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Cells in standby mode
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) During unfavorable conditions, the cytoplasm can solidify and protect the cell from death. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


One atom can make a difference: Hydrogen-bonding pairing helps design better drugs to neutralize gut
(Baylor College of Medicine) Hydrogen-bonding pairing regulates protein-ligand affinity; helps improve drug design. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


The first 3-D atlas of the extinct dodo
(Society of Vertebrate Paleontology) For the first time since its extinction, a 3-D atlas of the skeletal anatomy of the dodo has been created, based upon two exceptional dodo skeletons that have remained unstudied for over a century. This atlas, published as the fifteenth Memoir of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, represents the culmination of nearly five years of work and thousands of man-hours of digital investigation on the only two associated, near-complete skeletons of the dodo in existence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Over 300 new beetle records for New Brunswick, Canada, in a special issue of ZooKeys
(Pensoft Publishers) Beetle diversity in New Brunswick, Canada, has elicited the interest of biologists for over a century and continues to do so. Now, a group of specialists have joined forces in the name of their love for beetles, and compiled their findings from the last three years, reporting 303 species new to the region, including 32 species new to science. These records are published in a special issue of the open-access journal ZooKeys. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Antarctic birds recognize individual humans
(Laboratory of Behavioral Ecology and Evolution at Seoul National University) Brown skuas in Antarctica can discriminate individual people, even though they normally do not see many people around. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Ancient bones point to shifting grassland species as climate changes
(Oregon State University) More rainfall during the growing season may have led to one of the most significant changes in the Earth's vegetation in the distant past, and similar climate changes could affect the distribution of plants in the future as well, a new study suggests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Botulism in waterbirds: Mortality rates and new insights into how it spreads
(American Society for Microbiology) Outbreaks of botulism killed large percentages of waterbirds inhabiting a wetland in Spain. The botulinum toxin's spread may have been abetted by an invasive species of water snail which frequently carries the toxin-producing bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, and which is well adapted to wetlands polluted by sewage. Global warming will likely increase outbreaks, said corresponding author Rafael Mateo, Ph.D. The research was published March 25 in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


New class of molecular 'lightbulbs' illuminate MRI
(Duke University) Duke scientists have discovered a new class of molecular tags that enhance MRI signals by 10,000-fold and generate detectable signals that last over an hour. The tags are biocompatible and inexpensive to produce, paving the way for widespread use of MRI to monitor the metabolic processes of conditions like cancer and heart disease in real time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Biologists discover sophisticated 'alarm' signals in honey bees
(University of California - San Diego) Bees can use sophisticated signals to warn their nestmates about the level of danger from predators attacking foragers or the nest, according to a new study. Biologists at UC San Diego and in China found that an Asian species of honey bee can produce different types of vibrational 'stop signals' when attacked by giant Asian hornets. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Sniffing out a dangerous vapor
(University of Utah) University of Utah engineers have developed a new type of fiber material for a handheld scanner that can detect small traces of alkane fuel vapor, a valuable advancement that could be an early-warning signal for leaks in an oil pipeline, an airliner, or for locating a terrorist's explosive. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Ecdysis period and rate deviations of dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti reared in different artificial water-holding containers.
CONCLUSION: Characteristics of the container that can regulate water temperature seem to be the driving force with regards to the slow or fast development of Ae. aegypti, more notably in pupal ecdysis. The results of the study further strengthen our understanding on the dynamics of Ae. aegypti's developmental biology to different characteristics of artificial water containers. This, in turn, would aid in devising vector control strategies against dengue especially in endemic areas. PMID: 27004577 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)


Elongatoolithid eggs containing oviraptorid (Theropoda, Oviraptorosauria) embryos from the Upper Cretaceous of Southern China
Oviraptorids, like many other dinosaurs, clearly had a complex pattern of skeletal growth involving numerous morphological changes. However, many ontogenetic skeletal changes in oviraptorids were previously un... (Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology)


Onset, timing, and exposure therapy of stress disorders: mechanistic insight from a mathematical model of oscillating neuroendocrine dynamics
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a neuroendocrine system that regulates numerous physiological processes. Disruptions in the activity of the HPA axis are correlated with stress-related diseases... (Source: Biology Direct)


A web server for analysis, comparison and prediction of protein ligand binding sites
One of the major challenges in the field of system biology is to understand the interaction between a wide range of proteins and ligands. In the past, methods have been developed for predicting binding sites i... (Source: Biology Direct)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Viroids: “living fossils” of primordial RNAs?
The discovery of the viroid in 1971, which initiated the third major expansion of the biosphere towards smaller living entities—after discovery of the “subvisual” microorganisms in 1675 and that of the “submic... (Source: Biology Direct)


Protocol: optimisation of a grafting protocol for oilseed rape (Brassica napus) for studying long-distance signalling
Grafting is a well-established technique for studying long-distance transport and signalling processes in higher plants. While oilseed rape has been the subject of comprehensive analyses of xylem and phloem sa... (Source: Plant Methods)


[In Depth] Comb jelly ‘anus’ guts ideas on origin of through-gut
Several unprecedented videos of gelatinous sea creatures called comb jellies, or ctenophores, now threaten to upend the standard view of the evolution of the so-called through-gut. Comb jellies, jellyfish, sea sponges, and a few other creatures all were thought to lack an anus, which meant they had to eat and defecate through a single hole. These are descendants of some of the first animals to arise, so it has been thought that the through-gut and anus were an innovation that came after those lineages emerged—and perhaps something that drove the diversity of new animal forms. But on 15 March, at the Ctenopolooza meeting in St. Augustine, Florida, evolutionary biologist William Browne of the University of Miami in Florida debuted films of comb jellies pooping—and it wasn't through their...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


[In Depth] Synthetic microbe has fewest genes, but many mysteries
When it comes to genome size, a rare Japanese flower, called Paris japonica, is the current heavyweight champ, with 50 times more DNA than humans. At the other end of the scale, there's now a new lightweight record-holder growing in petri dishes in southern California. This week in Science, researchers led by genome sequencing pioneer Craig Venter report engineering a bacterium to have the smallest genome—and the fewest genes—of any freely living organism, smaller than the flower's by a factor of 282,000. Known as Syn 3.0, the new organism has a genome whittled down to the bare essentials needed to survive and reproduce, just 473 genes. The microbe's streamlined genetic structure excites evolutionary biologists and biotechnologists, who anticipate adding genes back to it one by one to ...


[Perspective] A Big Bang in spliceosome structural biology
Look at a protein-coding gene in the genome of any eukaryote—be it animal, plant, fungus, or protist—and you will likely find the coding region fragmented by intervening sequences known as introns. When the gene is transcribed, these introns have to be removed from the pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) before a protein can be made. How these introns are removed has been studied intensively for decades without the aid of a three-dimensional map of the highly dynamic machine at the heart of the process: the spliceosome. On page 1416 of this issue, Agafonov et al. report the first molecular-resolution reconstruction of a central assembly of the human spliceosome, the U4/U6.U5 triple small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP) complex, using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) (1). Together with...


[Book Review] The social gene
Genetic research has moved rapidly since the publication of Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene 40 years ago. In the intervening years, we have come to realize that many of the most interesting and important phenomena in human biology are not caused by any single gene. Citing a wealth of recent research that explores the ways genes work together to produce complex biological processes, Itai Yanai and Martin Lercher argue that it is time to embrace a new, more holistic, metaphor in their book, The Society of Genes. Author: Joseph Swift (Source: ScienceNOW)


[This Week in Science] A human spliceosomal subcomplex
Author: Guy Riddihough (Source: ScienceNOW)


[This Week in Science] Designing and building a minimal genome
Author: Valda Vinson (Source: ScienceNOW)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


[This Week in Science] A GRK2 peptide prevents heart failure
Author: Wei Wong (Source: ScienceNOW)


[Editors' Choice] A domain swap makes motor rings
Author: Guy Riddihough (Source: ScienceNOW)


[Research Article] Design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome
We used whole-genome design and complete chemical synthesis to minimize the 1079–kilobase pair synthetic genome of Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0. An initial design, based on collective knowledge of molecular biology combined with limited transposon mutagenesis data, failed to produce a viable cell. Improved transposon mutagenesis methods revealed a class of quasi-essential genes that are needed for robust growth, explaining the failure of our initial design. Three cycles of design, synthesis, and testing, with retention of quasi-essential genes, produced JCVI-syn3.0 (531 kilobase pairs, 473 genes), which has a genome smaller than that of any autonomously replicating cell found in nature. JCVI-syn3.0 retains almost all genes involved in the synthesis and processing of macromolecules. Un...


[Structural Biology] A domain swap makes motor rings
Cells are packed with protein complexes. Cells must appropriately assemble these complexes while ensuring that component proteins do not aggregate prematurely. Baker et al. – [Read More] (Source: Editors' Choice)


[Structural Biology] A human spliceosomal subcomplex
The spliceosome is an RNA and protein molecular machine that cuts out introns from messenger RNAs. Agafonov et al. used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structure – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


[Synthetic Biology] Designing and building a minimal genome
A goal in biology is to understand the molecular and biological function of every gene in a cell. One way to approach this is to build a minimal genome that includes only the genes – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)


[Cardiovascular Biology] A GRK2 peptide prevents heart failure
During cardiac hypertrophy, sustained high blood pressure causes the heart walls to thicken to deal with the increased load. If left unchecked, cardiac hypertrophy leads to heart failure. – [Read More] (Source: This Week in Science)


A retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy as first- and second-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Abstract Several phase III clinical trials had authenticated that the addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel plus carboplatin or gemcitabine plus cisplatin showed encouraging efficacy as first-line therapy for advanced NSCLC patients. However, the benefits of adding bevacizumab to other chemotherapy regimens in first- or second-line therapy have not been reported. To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of bevacizumab concomitant with chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced NSCLC as first- or second-line therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the effects of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy regimens in naive-chemotherapy and pre-chemotherapy patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. A total of 79 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC received at least two cycles of ...


Potential of neem (Azadirachta indica L.) for prevention and treatment of oncologic diseases
This article aims to present the collective and critical analysis of multiple phytoconstituents of A. indica and their molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects based on published preclinical and clinical results. Current limitations and future directions of research on this medicinal plant are also critically discussed. (Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology)


Analysis of racial variations in disease characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: American Journal of Hematology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Short-term UV-B exposure induces metabolic and anatomical changes in peel of harvested lemons contributing in fruit protection against green mold
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 159 Author(s): V.E. Ruiz, R. Interdonato, L. Cerioni, P. Albornoz, J. Ramallo, F.E. Prado, M. Hilal, V.A. Rapisarda UV-B radiation (UVBR) is a small fraction of the solar spectrum from 280 to 315nm. UVBR produces photomorphogenic acclimation responses in plants, modulating their cellular structure and physiology. Here, changes in the peel of harvested lemons after short time exposure to UVBR were analyzed and its potential effects against fungal infection were studied. In the flavedo, UVBR treatment induced variations in the respiratory profiles and increased the phenolic compound contents. Final products of the flavonoid pathway (flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins) increased more m...


Reprogramming of Pancreatic {alpha} Cells by TGR5 [Cell Biology]
The physiological role of the TGR5 receptor in the pancreas is not fully understood. We previously showed that activation of TGR5 in pancreatic β cells by bile acids induces insulin secretion. Glucagon released from pancreatic α cells and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal L cells regulate insulin secretion. Both glucagon and GLP-1 are derived from alternate splicing of a common precursor, proglucagon by PC2 and PC1, respectively. We investigated whether TGR5 activation in pancreatic α cells enhances hyperglycemia-induced PC1 expression thereby releasing GLP-1, which in turn increases β cell mass and function in a paracrine manner. TGR5 activation augmented a hyperglycemia-induced switch from glucagon to GLP-1 synthesis in human and mouse islet α cells by GS/cAMP...


PRX Hyperoxidation and Redox Signaling in Aging Chondrocytes [Cell Biology]
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging and oxidative stress on chondrocyte intracellular signaling, with a specific focus on oxidation of cytosolic PRX2 and mitochondrial PRX3. Menadione was used as a model to induce cellular oxidative stress. Compared with chondrocytes isolated from young adult humans, chondrocytes from older adults exhibited higher levels of PRX1–3 hyperoxidation basally and under conditions of oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation was associated with inhibition of pro-survival Akt signaling and stimulation of pro-death p38 signaling. These changes were prevented in cultured human chondrocytes by adenoviral expression of catalase targeted to the mitochondria (MCAT) and in cartilage explants from MCAT transgenic mice. Peroxiredoxin hyp...


Amphipathic Helices Target Perilipins 1-3 to Lipid Droplets [Cell Biology]
Perilipins (PLINs) play a key role in energy storage by orchestrating the activity of lipases on the surface of lipid droplets. Failure of this activity results in severe metabolic disease in humans. Unlike all other lipid droplet-associated proteins, PLINs localize almost exclusively to the phospholipid monolayer surrounding the droplet. To understand how they sense and associate with the unique topology of the droplet surface, we studied the localization of human PLINs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrating that the targeting mechanism is highly conserved and that 11-mer repeat regions are sufficient for droplet targeting. Mutations designed to disrupt folding of this region into amphipathic helices (AHs) significantly decreased lipid droplet targeting in vivo and in vitro. Finally, ...


Bone Anabolic Modulation by Sulforaphane [DNA and Chromosomes]
Bone degenerative pathologies like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, promotes osteoblast differentiation by epigenetic mechanisms. SFN enhances active DNA demethylation via Tet1 and Tet2 and promotes preosteoblast differentiation by enhancing extracellular matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblastic markers (Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap2, Sp7, Atf4, and Alpl). SFN decreases the expression of the osteoclast activator receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteocytes and mouse calvarial explants and preferentially induces apoptosis in preosteoclastic cells via up-regulation of the Tet1/Fas/Caspase 8 and Caspa...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Siw14 Cleaves the Pyrophosphate Moiety of 5PP-IP5 [Enzymology]
Inositol pyrophosphates are high energy signaling molecules involved in cellular processes, such as energetic metabolism, telomere maintenance, stress responses, and vesicle trafficking, and can mediate protein phosphorylation. Although the inositol kinases underlying inositol pyrophosphate biosynthesis are well characterized, the phosphatases that selectively regulate their cellular pools are not fully described. The diphosphoinositol phosphate phosphohydrolase enzymes of the Nudix protein family have been demonstrated to dephosphorylate inositol pyrophosphates; however, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog Ddp1 prefers inorganic polyphosphate over inositol pyrophosphates. We identified a novel phosphatase of the recently discovered atypical dual specificity phosphatase family as a physio...


SETD6 Modulates the Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway [Gene Regulation]
Lysine methylation of non-histone proteins has emerged as a key regulator of many cellular functions. Although less studied than other post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation, the number of known methylated non-histone proteins is rapidly expanding. We have identified the p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) as a new substrate for methylation by the protein lysine methyltransferase SETD6. Our data demonstrate that SETD6 methylates PAK4 both in vitro and at chromatin in cells. Interestingly, depletion of SETD6 in various cellular systems significantly hinders the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin target genes. PAK4 was recently shown to regulate β-catenin signaling, and we show that SETD6 is a key mediator of this pathway. In the presence of SETD6, the physical int...


Ad19a E3/49K Trafficking and Proteolytic Processing [Microbiology]
The E3 transcription unit of human species C adenoviruses (Ads) encodes immunomodulatory proteins that mediate direct protection of infected cells. Recently, we described a novel immunomodulatory function for E3/49K, an E3 protein uniquely expressed by species D Ads. E3/49K of Ad19a/Ad64, a serotype that causes epidemic keratokonjunctivitis, is synthesized as a highly glycosylated type I transmembrane protein that is subsequently cleaved, resulting in secretion of its large ectodomain (sec49K). sec49K binds to CD45 on leukocytes, impairing activation and functions of natural killer cells and T cells. E3/49K is localized in the Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN), in the early endosomes, and on the plasma membrane, yet the cellular compartment where E3/49K is cleaved and the protease involved r...


GGCT Activated by Eukaryotic Thioredoxins [Cell Biology]
The plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum injects more than 70 effector proteins (virulence factors) into the host plant cells via the needle-like structure of a type III secretion system. The type III secretion system effector proteins manipulate host regulatory networks to suppress defense responses with diverse molecular activities. Uncovering the molecular function of these effectors is essential for a mechanistic understanding of R. solanacearum pathogenicity. However, few of the effectors from R. solanacearum have been functionally characterized, and their plant targets remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the ChaC domain-containing effector RipAY/RSp1022 from R. solanacearum exhibits γ-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) activity to degrade the major intracellular re...


Transcriptional Activation of ID1 by c-Jun/c-Fos [Signal Transduction]
ID1 (inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding 1) acts an important role in metastasis, tumorigenesis, and maintenance of cell viability. It has been shown that the up-regulation of ID1 is correlated with poor prognosis and the resistance to chemotherapy of human cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we determined for the first time that up-regulating ID1 upon etoposide activation was mediated through AP-1 binding sites within the ID1 promoter and confirmed that ID1 enhanced cell resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. Ablation of c-Jun/c-Fos or ID1 expression enhanced etoposide-mediated apoptosis through increasing activity of caspase 3 and PARP cleavage. Moreover, c-Jun/c-Fos and ID1 were positively corr...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Oligomerization of Aquaporin-4 [Protein Structure and Folding]
The aquaporin (AQP) family of integral membrane protein channels mediate cellular water and solute flow. Although qualitative and quantitative differences in channel permeability, selectivity, subcellular localization, and trafficking responses have been observed for different members of the AQP family, the signature homotetrameric quaternary structure is conserved. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, we show that mutations to an intracellular loop (loop D) of human AQP4 reduce oligomerization. Non-tetrameric AQP4 mutants are unable to relocalize to the plasma membrane in response to changes in extracellular tonicity, despite equivalent constitutive surface expression levels and water permeability to wild-type AQP4. A network of AQP4 loop D hydrogen bonding interactions, identified ...


CUL4B Regulates Mammalian Spermatogenesis [Cell Biology]
CUL4B ubiquitin ligase belongs to the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase family. Although sharing many sequence and structural similarities, CUL4B plays distinct roles in spermatogenesis from its homologous protein CUL4A. We previously reported that genetic ablation of Cul4a in mice led to male infertility because of aberrant meiotic progression. In the present study, we generated Cul4b germ cell-specific conditional knock-out (Cul4bVasa),as well as Cul4b global knock-out (Cul4bSox2) mouse, to investigate its roles in spermatogenesis. Germ cell-specific deletion of Cul4b led to male infertility, despite normal testicular morphology and comparable numbers of spermatozoa. Notably, significantly impaired sperm mobility caused by reduced mitochondrial activity and glycolysis level were observed in t...


Inner Membrane Complex of Type IV Pilus Assembly Systems [Microbiology]
Type IV pili (T4P) are ubiquitous bacterial cell surface structures, involved in processes such as twitching motility, biofilm formation, bacteriophage infection, surface attachment, virulence, and natural transformation. T4P are assembled by machinery that can be divided into the outer membrane pore complex, the alignment complex that connects components in the inner and outer membrane, and the motor complex in the inner membrane and cytoplasm. Here, we characterize the inner membrane platform protein PilC, the cytosolic assembly ATPase PilB of the motor complex, and the cytosolic nucleotide-binding protein PilM of the alignment complex of the T4P machinery of Myxococcus xanthus. PilC was purified as a dimer and reconstituted into liposomes. PilB was isolated as a monomer and bound ATP in...


SARAF Regulates ARC Channels [Cell Biology]
The store-operated Ca2+ entry-associated regulatory factor (SARAF) has recently been identified as a STIM1 regulatory protein that facilitates slow Ca2+-dependent inactivation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Both the store-operated channels and the store-independent arachidonate-regulated Ca2+ (ARC) channels are regulated by STIM1. In the present study, we show that, in addition to its location in the endoplasmic reticulum, SARAF is constitutively expressed in the plasma membrane, where it can interact with plasma membrane (PM)-resident ARC forming subunits in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Using siRNA-based and overexpression approaches we report that SARAF negatively regulates store-independent Ca2+ entry via the ARC channels. Arachidonic acid (AA) increases the association of...


Circadian Rhythm of IRP2 in Tumors [Metabolism]
In this study, we identified a 24-h rhythm in iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) levels in colon-26 tumors implanted in mice. Our findings suggest that IRP2 regulates the 24-h rhythm of transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) mRNA expression post-transcriptionally, by binding to RNA stem-loop structures known as iron-response elements. We also found that Irp2 mRNA transcription is promoted by circadian clock genes, including brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (BMAL1) and the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) heterodimer. Moreover, growth in colon-26(Δ19) tumors expressing the clock-mutant protein (CLOCKΔ19) was low compared with that in wild-type colon-26 tumor. The time-dependent variation of cellular iron levels, and the proliferation rate in wild-type colon-26 tumor was decreased by CLOCK...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


NOX4 Interacts with Calnexin [Protein Synthesis and Degradation]
Within the family of NADPH oxidases, NOX4 is unique as it is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, has constitutive activity, and generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We hypothesize that these features are consequences of a so far unidentified NOX4-interacting protein. Two-dimensional blue native (BN) electrophorese combined with SDS-PAGE yielded NOX4 to reside in macromolecular complexes. Interacting proteins were screened by quantitative SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture) co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing NOX4. By this technique, several interacting proteins were identified with calnexin showing the most robust interaction. Calnexin also resided in NOX4-containing complexes as demonstrated by complexome profili...


Silk Gene Regulation by Antennapedia [Gene Regulation]
Hox genes play a pivotal role in the determination of anteroposterior axis specificity during bilaterian animal development. They do so by acting as a master control and regulating the expression of genes important for development. Recently, however, we showed that Hox genes can also function in terminally differentiated tissue of the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In this species, Antennapedia (Antp) regulates expression of sericin-1, a major silk protein gene, in the silk gland. Here, we investigated whether Antp can regulate expression of multiple genes in this tissue. By means of proteomic, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization analyses, we demonstrate that misexpression of Antp in the posterior silk gland induced ectopic expression of major silk protein genes such as sericin-3, fhxh4, and fhxh...


Potassium Channel-blocking Scorpion Defensin [Protein Structure and Folding]
The structural similarity between defensins and scorpion neurotoxins suggests that they might have evolved from a common ancestor. However, there is no direct experimental evidence demonstrating a functional link between scorpion neurotoxins and defensins. The scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 from Mesobuthus martensii Karsch contains 37 amino acid residues and a conserved cystine-stabilized α/β structural fold. The recombinant BmKDfsin4, a classical defensin, has been found to have inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, electrophysiological experiments showed that BmKDfsin4,like scorpion potassium channel neurotoxins, could effectively inh...


Sox11 Ablation Mimics the Pierre Robin Sequence [Molecular Bases of Disease]
In this study, we explored the role of Sox11 in palatogenesis by analyzing the developmental mechanism in cleft palate formation in mutants deficient in Sox11. Sox11 is expressed both in the developing palatal shelf and in the surrounding structures, including the mandible. We found that cleft palate occurs only in the mutant in which Sox11 is directly deleted. As in the wild type, the palatal shelves in the Sox11 mutant undergo outgrowth in a downward direction and exhibit potential for fusion and elevation. However, mutant palatal shelves encounter clefting, which is associated with a malpositioned tongue that results in physical obstruction of palatal shelf elevation at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5). We found that loss of Sox11 led to reduced cell proliferation in the developing mandibular...


Sensitivity of Sirtuin Deacylation to NADH [Enzymology]
Protein lysine posttranslational modification by an increasing number of different acyl groups is becoming appreciated as a regulatory mechanism in cellular biology. Sirtuins are class III histone deacylases that use NAD+ as a co-substrate during amide bond hydrolysis. Several studies have described the sirtuins as sensors of the NAD+/NADH ratio, but it has not been formally tested for all the mammalian sirtuins in vitro. To address this problem, we first synthesized a wide variety of peptide-based probes, which were used to identify the range of hydrolytic activities of human sirtuins. These probes included aliphatic ϵ-N-acyllysine modifications with hydrocarbon lengths ranging from formyl (C1) to palmitoyl (C16) as well as negatively charged dicarboxyl-derived modifications. In addition...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


NANOG Binds to and Inhibits GLI Transcription Factors [Gene Regulation]
The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is essential for the maintenance and response of several types of stem cells. To study the transcriptional response of stem cells to HH signaling, we searched for proteins binding to GLI proteins, the transcriptional effectors of the HH pathway in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We found that both GLI3 and GLI1 bind to the pluripotency factor NANOG. The ectopic expression of NANOG inhibits GLI1-mediated transcriptional responses in a dose-dependent fashion. In differentiating ES cells, the presence of NANOG reduces the transcriptional response of cells to HH. Finally, we found that Gli1 and Nanog are co-expressed in ES cells at high levels. We propose that NANOG acts as a negative feedback component that provides stem cell-specific regulation of the HH ...


Inhibition of Voltage-gated Sodium Channels by {mu}O{section}-GVIIJ [Neurobiology]
Cone snail toxins are well known blockers of voltage-gated sodium channels, a property that is of broad interest in biology and therapeutically in treating neuropathic pain and neurological disorders. Although most conotoxin channel blockers function by direct binding to a channel and disrupting its normal ion movement, conotoxin μO§-GVIIJ channel blocking is unique, using both favorable binding interactions with the channel and a direct tether via an intermolecular disulfide bond. Disulfide exchange is possible because conotoxin μO§-GVIIJ contains an S-cysteinylated Cys-24 residue that is capable of exchanging with a free cysteine thiol on the channel surface. Here, we present the solution structure of an analog of μO§-GVIIJ (GVIIJ[C24S]) and the results of structure-activity studie...


HMGB1 Osteo‐Modulatory Action on Osteosarcoma SaOS‐2 Cell Line: An Integrated Study from Biochemical and ‐Omics Approaches
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry)


Novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for a new target species, the sea cucumber Holothuria mammata
We report the development of 9 novel polymorphic microsatellites markers for Holothuria mammata and characterized them by testing in three different sample locations. All nine microsatellites revealed high polymorphism and diversity, with high number of alleles, ranged from 11 to 22 and expected heterozygosity, between 0.52 and 0.92. Significant genetic differentiation was found between populations. These microsatellites are providing valuable information which could be applied to fisheries management including, identification of stocks, assessment of their genetic diversity, estimation of gene flow and monitoring the fishery effects on exploited populations. (Source: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology)


Localizing PRL-2 expression and determining the effects of dietary Mg 2+ on expression levels
Abstract The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of protein tyrosine phosphatases that play a key role in cancer progression and metastasis. We previously showed that PRL-2 modulates intracellular Mg2+ levels and sustains cancer phenotypes by binding to the Mg2+ transporter CNNM3. However, the physiological functions of PRL-2 in animals remain largely unknown. To better understand which cell types are associated with PRL-2 function, we characterized its expression in mouse tissues using a PRL-2 β-galactosidase reporter mouse model. Our results demonstrated that PRL-2 was ubiquitously expressed, with the highest expression levels observed in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons, ependymal cells, cone and rod photoreceptor cells, endocardium, vascular and bronchial smo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


SULF1/SULF2 reactivation during liver damage and tumour growth
Abstract Both SULF1 and SULF2 enzymes are undetectable in normal adult liver tissue despite their high level expression during foetal development. Most hepatocellular carcinomas unlike the normal adult liver, however, express variable levels of these enzymes with a small proportion not expressing either SULF1 or SULF2. SULF1 expression, however, is not restricted to only foetal and tumour tissues but is also abundant in liver tissues undergoing injury-induced tissue regeneration as we observed during fatty liver degeneration, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Unlike SULF1, the level of SULF2 activation during injury-induced regeneration, however, is much lower when compared to foetal or tumour growth. Although a small fraction of liver tumours and some liver tumour cell lines can g...


Correction: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Directs POMC Gene to Mediate Hypothalamic Glucose Sensing and Energy Balance Regulation
by Hai Zhang, Guo Zhang, Frank J. Gonzalez, Sung-min Park, Dongsheng Cai (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)


Transgenerational Epigenetic Contributions to Stress Responses: Fact or Fiction?


Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal
by Ken Tan, Shihao Dong, Xinyu Li, Xiwen Liu, Chao Wang, Jianjun Li, James C. Nieh Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world’s largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana possesses a vibrational “stop signal,” which can be triggered by predator attacks upon foragers and inhibits waggle dancing. Large hornet attacks were more dangerous and resulted in higher bee mortality. Per attack at...


The Effects of Context and Attention on Spiking Activity in Human Early Visual Cortex
by Matthew W. Self, Judith C. Peters, Jessy K. Possel, Joel Reithler, Rainer Goebel, Peterjan Ris, Danique Jeurissen, Leila Reddy, Steven Claus, Johannes C. Baayen, Pieter R. Roelfsema Here we report the first quantitative analysis of spiking activity in human early visual cortex. We recorded multi-unit activity from two electrodes in area V2/V3 of a human patient implanted with depth electrodes as part of her treatment for epilepsy. We observed well-localized multi-unit receptive fields with tunings for contrast, orientation, spatial frequency, and size, similar to those reported in the macaque. We also observed pronounced gamma oscillations in the local-field potential that could be used to estimate the underlying spiking response properties. Spiking responses were modulated by visual c...


Low Genetic Quality Alters Key Dimensions of the Mutational Spectrum
by Nathaniel P. Sharp, Aneil F. Agrawal Mutations affect individual health, population persistence, adaptation, diversification, and genome evolution. There is evidence that the mutation rate varies among genotypes, but the causes of this variation are poorly understood. Here, we link differences in genetic quality with variation in spontaneous mutation in a Drosophila mutation accumulation experiment. We find that chromosomes maintained in low-quality genetic backgrounds experience a higher rate of indel mutation and a lower rate of gene conversion in a manner consistent with condition-based differences in the mechanisms used to repair DNA double strand breaks. These aspects of the mutational spectrum were also associated with body mass, suggesting that the effect of genetic quality on D...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Hemotin, a Regulator of Phagocytosis Encoded by a Small ORF and Conserved across Metazoans
by José I. Pueyo, Emile G. Magny, Christopher J. Sampson, Unum Amin, Iwan R. Evans, Sarah A. Bishop, Juan P. Couso Translation of hundreds of small ORFs (smORFs) of less than 100 amino acids has recently been revealed in vertebrates and Drosophila. Some of these peptides have essential and conserved cellular functions. In Drosophila, we have predicted a particular smORF class encoding ~80 aa hydrophobic peptides, which may function in membranes and cell organelles. Here, we characterise hemotin, a gene encoding an 88aa transmembrane smORF peptide localised to early endosomes in Drosophila macrophages. hemotin regulates endosomal maturation during phagocytosis by repressing the cooperation of 14-3-3ζ with specific phosphatidylinositol (PI) enzymes. hemotin mutants accumulate undigested p...


Modeling the Excess Cell Surface Stored in a Complex Morphology of Bleb-Like Protrusions
by Maryna Kapustina, Denis Tsygankov, Jia Zhao, Timothy Wessler, Xiaofeng Yang, Alex Chen, Nathan Roach, Timothy C. Elston, Qi Wang, Ken Jacobson, M. Gregory Forest Cells transition from spread to rounded morphologies in diverse physiological contexts including mitosis and mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transitions. When these drastic shape changes occur rapidly, cell volume and surface area are approximately conserved. Consequently, the rounded cells are suddenly presented with a several-fold excess of cell surface whose area far exceeds that of a smooth sphere enclosing the cell volume. This excess is stored in a population of bleb-like protrusions (BLiPs), whose size distribution is shown by electron micrographs to be skewed. We introduce three complementary models of rounded cell morphologie...


Similarity in Shape Dictates Signature Intrinsic Dynamics Despite No Functional Conservation in TIM Barrel Enzymes
by Sandhya P. Tiwari, Nathalie Reuter The conservation of the intrinsic dynamics of proteins emerges as we attempt to understand the relationship between sequence, structure and functional conservation. We characterise the conservation of such dynamics in a case where the structure is conserved but function differs greatly. The triosephosphate isomerase barrel fold (TBF), renowned for its 8 β-strand-α-helix repeats that close to form a barrel, is one of the most diverse and abundant folds found in known protein structures. Proteins with this fold have diverse enzymatic functions spanning five of six Enzyme Commission classes, and we have picked five different superfamily candidates for our analysis using elastic network models. We find that the overall shape is a large determinant in th...


Dynamics of in vivo hepatitis D virus infection
Conclusion: Mathematical modeling of HDV infection can describe the complex interplay between this virus and HBV. Simulations suggest that HDV impacts on the feedback mechanisms that maintain cccDNA levels and that targeting these mechanisms may result in new therapeutic agents for both viruses. (Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology)


An artificial intelligence approach for modeling volume and fresh weight of callus – A case study of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.)
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Ali Mansouri, Ali Fadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Mortazavian Cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) is valued for its aroma and its medicinal and therapeutic properties. A supervised feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) trained with back propagation algorithms, was applied to predict fresh weight and volume of Cuminum cyminum L. calli. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate input/output dependency of the eleven input parameters. Area, feret diameter, minor axis length, perimeter and weighted density parameters were chosen as input variables. Different training algorithms, transfer functions, number of hidden nodes and training iteration were studied to find out the optimum ANN structur...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


The effect of high versus low intensity heat acclimation on performance and neuromuscular responses
This study examined the effect of exercise intensity and duration during 5-day heat acclimation (HA) on cycling performance and neuromuscular responses. 20 recreationally trained males completed a ‘baseline’ trial followed by 5 consecutive days HA, and ‘post-acclimation’ trial. Baseline and post-acclimation trials consisted of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), a single and 5 repeated countermovement jump protocol, 20km cycling time trial (TT) and 5×6sec maximal sprints (SPR). Cycling trials were undertaken in 33.0±0.8 °C and 60±3% relative humidity. Core (Tcore), and skin temperatures, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation were recorded throughout cycling trials. Participants were assigned to either 30min high-intensity (30HI) or 90min lo...


Consumer perception of bio-based products—An exploratory study in 5 European countries
This study explores people’s perceptions (i.e., positive and negative associations, mixed feelings) regarding the concept of ‘bio-based’ in general and specific bio-based products. This exploratory study is one of the first consumer studies in the field of bio-based research. Three focus group discussions were organized in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy, and The Netherlands (with 89 participants in total) in which projective techniques were applied. Results of these group discussions indicate that participants are unfamiliar with ‘bio-based’ as a concept. ‘Bio-based’ is most often associated with positive environmental issues as “naturalness” and “environmental friendly” but also with negative environmental associations and to a lesser extent with technol...


Switchgrass biomass partitioning and growth characteristics under different management practices
The objective of the study was to examine the response of switchgrass (cv. Alamo) to irrigation (2 levels: rainfed and irrigated with 250mm) and N-fertilization (4 levels: 0, 80, 160 and 240kgNha−1) under two different soil-climatic conditions for two growing seasons 2011 and 2012. The results demonstrated a significant effect (P&lt;0.05) of irrigation, fertilization and their interaction on crop growth and biomass productivity. Biomass yield ranged from 14 to 27Mgha−1 for the calcareous, clay loam to clay, fertile soil (Velestino; Greece) and for the deep, calcareous sandy loam to loam, semi-fertile soil (Palamas; Greece), respectively. In both sites, switchgrass accumulated a high amount of biomass in stems. Dry stem/total biomass ratio was stabilized in the 3rd growing year and ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


OsCCD1, a novel small calcium-binding protein with one EF-hand motif, positively regulates osmotic and salt tolerance in rice
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Plant Science Author(s): Pei Jing, Juanzi Zou, Lin Kong, Shiqi Hu, Biying Wang, Jun Yang, Guosheng Xie Calcium-binding proteins play key roles in the signal transduction in the growth and stress response in eukaryotes. However, a subfamily of proteins with one EF-hand motif has not been fully studied in higher plants. Here, a novel small calcium-binding protein with a C-terminal centrin-like domain (CCD1) in rice, OsCCD1, was characterized to show high similarity with a TaCCD1 in wheat. As a result, OsCCD1 can bind Ca2+ in the in vitro EMSA and the fluorescence staining calcium-binding assays. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged OsCCD1 in rice protoplasts showed that OsCCD1 was localized in the nucl...


Quantitative trait loci associated with natural diversity in water-use efficiency and response to soil drying in Brachypodium distachyon
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Plant Science Author(s): David L. Des Marais, Samsad Razzaque, Kyle M. Hernandez, David F. Garvin, Thomas E. Juenger All plants must optimize their growth with finite resources. Water use efficiency (WUE) measures the relationship between biomass acquisition and transpired water. In the present study, we performed two experiments to understand the genetic basis of WUE and other parameters of plant-water interaction under control and water-limited conditions. Our study used two inbred natural accessions of Brachypodium distachyon, a model grass species with close phylogenetic affinity to temperate forage and cereal crops. First, we identify the soil water content which causes a reduction in leaf relative water content and an inc...


The LEA protein, ABR, is regulated by ABI5 and involved in dark-induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana
In this study, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein ABR (ABA-response protein) in delaying dark-induced leaf senescence. The ABR gene was up-regulated by treatment with ABA, NaCl and mannitol, as well as by light deprivation. In the dark, abr mutant plants displayed a premature leaf senescence phenotype, and various senescence-associated indicators, such as an increase in chlorophyll degradation and membrane leakiness, were enhanced, whereas 35S:ABR/abr transgenic lines showed a marked delay in dark-induced leaf senescence phenotypes. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that ABI5 bind to the ABR promoter, indicating that ABI5 directly regulates the expression of ABR. The disruption of ABI5 function in abr abi5-1 plants abolished the senescenc...


Bacterial and fungal growth in burnt acid soils amended with different high C/N mulch materials
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 97 Author(s): A. Barreiro, E. Bååth, M. Díaz-Raviña Wildfire has become a major disturbance agent in Mediterranean area, with Galicia in the north-west of Spain having the most frequent fires. In order to combat soil erosion, different post-fire stabilization treatments can be applied, like adding different mulch materials. In a laboratory experiment we evaluated the effect of adding plant residues, commonly used in post-fire rehabilitation (wheat straw, coconut fibre, Eucalyptus bark and wood chips), at two different rates on the microbial response (respiration, bacterial and fungal growth, using leucine and acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation, and biomass and community structure by means of phospholipids fa...


Predicting nitrous oxide emissions from manure properties and soil moisture: An incubation experiment
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 97 Author(s): Khagendra R. Baral, Emmanuel Arthur, Jørgen E. Olesen, Søren O. Petersen Field-applied manure is a source of essential plant nutrients, but benefits may be partly offset by high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as modified by manure characteristics and soil properties. In a 28-d incubation experiment we quantified short-term emissions of N2O from a sandy loam soil amended with digestate (DI), pig slurry (PS) or cattle slurry (CS), and unamended soil (Ctrl), when incubated at 60, 70 and 80% water-filled pore space (WFPS). The soil was amended with 15N-labelled nitrate to distinguish sources of N2O. Emissions of N2O were not related to N input and corresponded to between 0.04 and 2.42% of ma...


Temperature the dominant control on the enzyme-latch across a range of temperate peatland types
We report the spatiotemporal patterns for phenol oxidases, phenolics, and a suite of five key hydrolase enzymes at two depths in two ombrotrophic bogs, mineral poor and rich fens, and a forested basin swamp over the growing season. Results obtained using linear fixed and mixed effect models suggest that phenol oxidase activity varies significantly with temperature and, to a lesser extent pH, leading to a breakdown of inhibitory phenolics and increased hydrolase enzyme activity across all peatland types. Overall, enzyme activity decreased significantly with depth and showed significant variation over the course of the growing season with a minimum in the spring and a maximum in the summer and fall. Enzyme activities were generally greatest in the rich fen and lowest in the forested basin sw...


Soil food web stability in response to grazing in a semi-arid prairie: The importance of soil textural heterogeneity
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 97 Author(s): Pilar Andrés, John C. Moore, Rodney T. Simpson, Greg Selby, Francesca Cotrufo, Karolien Denef, Michelle L. Haddix, E. Ashley Shaw, Cecilia Milano de Tomasel, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Diana H. Wall Grazing of grasslands by large herbivores is a form of land use intensification that affects not only plant communities but also soil biota and the ecosystem services that it provides. While grassland ecosystem responses to grazing have been extensively studied, few studies have focused on the effects of aboveground herbivores on belowground diversity and functions. In this work, we quantified effects of grazing on the structure, function and dynamic stability of soil food webs. We sampled a long-te...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Responses of methanogenic and methanotrophic communities to warming in varying moisture regimes of two boreal fens
This study took place in two boreal fens three years after experimental warming in un-manipulated wet and drier regimes, thus simulating future climate scenarios. We determined active methanogen and MOB communities as transcripts of mcrA and pmoA genes, along with the abundance of these genes, CH4 production and oxidation potentials, and in situ CH4 fluxes. Methanogenic community remained similar, although methanogen abundance decreased after warming. In the wet regime, this decrease resulted in a small but significant reduction on the potential CH4 production in such peat layers where the average production potential was high. Drying alone, however, reduced the potential CH4 production more than warming, and this impact was strong enough to mask the small warming impact in the drier regim...


Long-term effects of elevated CO2 on carbon and nitrogen functional capacity of microbial communities in three contrasting soils
This study examined whether these plant-mediated processes indirectly influence the structure and function of soil microbial communities and soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Surface soils (0–5 and 5–10 cm) of Calcarosol, Chromosol and Vertosol were sampled after 5 years' exposure to either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or eCO2 (550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Changes in microbial community structure were not detected using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (ARISA). However, quantitative PCR of targeted organic C decomposition (cu, cbh), N mineralisation (apr, npr), nitrification (amoB, amoA, norA) and denitrification (nirK, narG, nosZ) genes showed that eCO2 reduced the abundance of half of the functional genes in the Chromosol and Vertosol and...


Antibody‐Mediated Rejection in Sensitized Nonhuman Primates: Modeling Human Biology
We have established a model of sensitization in nonhuman primates and tested two immunosuppressive regimens. Animals underwent fully mismatched skin transplantation, and donor‐specific antibody (DSA) response was monitored by flow cross‐match. Sensitized animals subsequently underwent kidney transplantation from their skin donor. Immunosuppression included tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and methylprednisolone. Three animals received basiliximab induction; compared with nonsensitized animals, they showed a shorter mean survival time (4.7 ± 3.1 vs. 187 ± 88 days). Six animals were treated with T cell depletion (anti‐CD4/CD8 mAbs), which prolonged survival (mean survival time 21.6 ± 19.0 days). All presensitized animals showed antibody‐mediated rejection (AMR). In two of three basilixi...


Identification of drug-target interaction from interactome network with 'guilt-by-association principle and topology features
Motivation: Identifying drug&ndash;target protein interaction is a crucial step in the process of drug research and development. Wet-lab experiment are laborious, time-consuming and expensive. Hence, there is a strong demand for the development of a novel theoretical method to identify potential interaction between drug and target protein. Results: We use all known proteins and drugs to construct a nodes- and edges-weighted biological relevant interactome network. On the basis of the &lsquo;guilt-by-association&rsquo; principle, novel network topology features are proposed to characterize interaction pairs and random forest algorithm is employed to identify potential drug&ndash;protein interaction. Accuracy of 92.53% derived from the 10-fold cross-validation is about 10% higher than that o...


The TraDIS toolkit: sequencing and analysis for dense transposon mutant libraries
This article can serve as a general reference for the application of the TraDIS methodology. Availability and implementation: The optimized sequencing protocol is included as supplementary information. The Bio-Tradis analysis pipeline is available under a GPL license at https://github.com/sanger-pathogens/Bio-Tradis Contact: parkhill@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. (Source: Bioinformatics)


Telocytes in the reproductive organs: current understanding and future challenges
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell &amp; Developmental Biology Author(s): Dragos Cretoiu, Sanda Maria Cretoiu Over the past decades, we were witnessing spectacular molecular medicine advances. However, many of the reproductive medicine problems, such as fertility issues and premature birth still represent major challenges for obstetrics &amp; gynecology worldwide. A new cell population − the telocytes (TCs) − were described in the interstitial space of many organs, and their possible implications in many important physiological and pathological processes should not be overlooked. In this article, we present a historical perspective outlining the landmarks in the discovery, evolution and achievements in the field of TCs over the last ten...


MicroRNA-134 modulates glioma cell U251 proliferation and invasion by targeting KRAS and suppressing the ERK pathway
Abstract Dysregulated microRNA-134 (miR-134) has been observed in glioma carcinogenesis, and studies suggested that the ERK pathway plays vital roles in glioma cell growth and proliferation. However, the fundamental relationship between miR-134 and the ERK pathway in glioma has not been fully explained. As a result, this study was aimed to explore the underlying functions of miR-134 in human glioma. Intentionally overexpressed or inhibited miR-134 expression resulted from the transfection of miR-134 mimics, or miR-134 inhibitor within glioma cell line U251 was detected using RT-PCR. Both cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays and Transwell assays were carried out to clarify the proliferation and invasion of U251 cells transfected with miR-134 mimics or miR-134 inhibitors. Our findings...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Nrf2 inhibition sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma cells to cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities of chemotherapeutic agents
Abstract Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor regulating antioxidant, cytoprotective, and metabolic enzymes, plays important roles in drug resistance and proliferation in cancer cells. The present study was aimed to examine the expression of Nrf2 in connection with chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. The basal levels of Nrf2 protein in cytosol and nuclear fractions of CCA cells were determined using Western blot analysis. Nrf2 mRNA expression of KKU-M156 and KKU-100 cells, representatives of low and high-Nrf2-expressing CCA cells, were silenced using siRNA. After knockdown of Nrf2, the sensitivity of those cells to the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (Cis) was enhanced in association with the increased release of...


Mast Cells Regulate Epidermal Barrier Function and the Development of Allergic Skin Inflammation
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, T helper cells and mast cells. The role of mast cells in AD is not completely understood. To define the effects of mast cells on skin biology, we observed that mast cells regulate the homeostatic expression of Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) and other skin genes. Decreased EDC gene expression in mice that genetically lack mast cells (KitW-sh/W-sh mice) is associated with increased uptake of protein antigens painted on the skin by dendritic cells, compared to similarly treated wild-type mice, suggesting a protective role for mast cells in exposure to nominal environmental allergens. (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology)


Effect of vitamin C on collagen structure of cardinal and uterosacral ligaments during pregnancy
This study aimed to investigate changes in collagen structure in the cardinal and uterosacral ligaments of rats that were administered vitamin C during pregnancy. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology)


Correlation between the severity of cetuximab-induced skin rash and clinical outcome for head and neck cancer patients: The XXXX experience
Present study evaluated the severity of cetuximab-induced skin rash and its correlation with clinical outcome and late skin toxicity in patients HNSCC treated with chemoradiotherapy and cetuximab in two prospective randomized trials. Grade 2-4 cetuximab rash was associated with better survival possibly due to reduction of distant metastasis. This observation was noted mainly in p16 negative patients. Grade 2-4 acute in-field radiation dermatitis was associated with higher rate of late Grade 2-4 skin fibrosis. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


Hyaluronic acid hydrogels formed in situ by transglutaminase-catalyzed reaction.
Authors: Ranga A, Lutolf MP, Hilborn J, Ossipov DA Abstract Enzymatically cross-linked hydrogels can be formed in situ and permit highly versatile and selective tethering of bioactive molecules, thereby allowing for a wealth of applications in cell biology and tissue engineering. While a number of studies have reported the bioconjugation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and peptides into such matrices, the site-specific incorporation of biologically highly relevant polysaccharides such as hyaluronic acid (HA) has thus far not been reported, limiting our ability to reconstruct this key feature of the in vivo ECM. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy for transglutaminase-mediated covalent linking of HA moieties to a synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macromer resulting in t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody Fc variants differentially impact Treg cells and immune homeostasis(1).
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 27012310 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)


Should You Force Yourself To Eat Breakfast Even If You Aren't Hungry?
We at The Huffington Post have no problem calling breakfast the most important meal of the day, and generally, experts don&#8217;t either. Long term studies link skipping breakfast to a higher risk of obesity, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, while eating breakfast is linked to a bunch of other benefits like a higher I.Q. But these studies, long-term though they may be, only establish a correlational relationship between breakfast and health outcomes. In other words, they don&#8217;t demonstrate that eating or not eating breakfast actually causes these diseases and conditions. Instead, they simply show if a person is more or less likely to be at risk of something based on their breakfast habits. So what kind of research can show a cause-and-effect relationship between breakfast ...


Below the Callus Surface: Applying Paleohistological Techniques to Understand the Biology of Bone Healing in Skeletonized Human Remains
Conclusion: The outer surface of a bone lesion may not give a complete picture of the biology of the tissue's response. Accordingly, microscopic analysis is essential to differentiate, characterize, and classify trauma signs.Pathobiology 2016;83:177-195 (Source: Pathobiology)


Directed Evolution of a Cyclized Peptoid–Peptide Chimera against a Cell-Free Expressed Protein and Proteomic Profiling of the Interacting Proteins to Create a Protein–Protein Interaction Inhibitor
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.5b01014 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)


Landmark as lab creates synthetic cell with minimum genes needed for life
With 473 genes Syn3.0 is the simplest self-replicating cell known and could be basis for new organisms designed to make new antibiotics, fuels and drugsGeneticists have established the minimum needed for life. They have designed and created a synthetic cell which can survive and replicate with just 473 genes. Humans and fruit flies have more than 20,000 genes each. The finding is a landmark in biological understanding. It could illuminate the mysterious story of life’s evolution in the primal oceans more than three billion years ago. It could provide the basis for a new generation of made-to-order organisms designed specifically to produce new antibiotics, new fuels and new drugs. And it is the climax of decades of theory and experiment. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Sc...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Craig Venter Just Hacked Bacteria To Have The Smallest Genome Possible
A team lead by the biologist J. Craig Venter has created, in the laboratory, a species of bacteria with a genetic code smaller than any known to exist in nature–basically creating a new organism with a minimal code necessary for life. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)


After 20 Year Quest, Biologists Create Synthetic Bacteria With No Extra Genes
A team lead by the biologist J. Craig Venter has created, in the laboratory, a species of bacteria with a genetic code smaller than any known to exist in nature?basically creating a new organism with a minimal code necessary for life. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)


Is This Supercute Rodent Extinct or Just Hiding?
Nobody has seen the Morro Bay kangaroo rat since 1986, but biologists say we shouldn&rsquo;t give up hope that it still exists -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


Bacterial Riboswitches and Ribozymes Potently Activate the Human Innate Immune Sensor PKR
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00081 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)


Rhabdomyosarcoma in children in the light of isotope ratio mass spectrometry.
Authors: Taran K, Frączek T, Sitkiewicz A, Paneth P, Kobos J Abstract Rhabdomyosarcoma is the third most common solid tumor in children and the most common soft tissue sarcoma in this age group. However, 5-year survival is only observed in approximately 70% of cases, and the prognosis for patients with progressive disease is still poor. The authors hypothesize that the still unidentified differences in embryonal and alveolar tumor biology reflect the complex chemical reactions occurring during cell growth and metabolism and may be pursued in isotopic fractionation processes. Presented herein is the first evaluation of the nitrogen and carbon isotope ratio using isotope ratio mass spectrometry in the two major rhabdomyosarcoma histologic types. 15N enrichment was found in tumor tis...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Have a problem? Contact the new ombudsman in the office of regulatory affairs
By: Melinda K. Plaisier Whether we are inspecting your facilities, sampling your products, or conducting investigations, the primary goal of FDA’s Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA) is to protect the public. But I understand the impact our actions can have on you, so I am committed to making ORA’s processes as transparent as possible and quickly addressing problems you may encounter. That’s why I’m happy to announce a new resource: an ORA ombudsman who can help you with unresolved concerns. While you may continue to bring issues to my staff, Ombudsman Jessica Zeller is dedicated solely to helping you with assessing and resolving problems. Jessica, who has worked in both industry and government, understands that FDA’s perspective is often different from that of industry and other ...


How are chocolate eggs made? A totally factual scientific explanation | Dean Burnett
Chocolate eggs are everywhere at Easter, but to produce them in such abundance involves some extreme and unpleasant scientific processesIt’s Easter. And what does Easter mean? Chocolate eggs all round. And also something to do with Jesus coming back to life, but it’s a lot harder (and somewhat macabre) to exploit that for easy financial gain, so chocolate eggs it is. And sometimes rabbits. However, have you ever stopped to wonder how exactly these eggs are made? Tens of millions of them are consumed each year, and they don’t just come from nowhere. Chocolate eggs go back nearly two centuries, so clearly a lot of time and effort has gone into their production. But, like with many modern foodstuffs, the nature of this time and effort, and the processes involved, can often be unsettling...


So we're not inherently selfish – but selflessness requires careful thought | Marc Lewis
A new study shows how altruism wells up from the most primitive parts of the brain. It counts for little, though, if our rational powers aren’t engaged tooRecently, a team of researchers the University of California Los Angeles published data showing what goes on in the brain when people act altruistically. These researchers rated study participants as more or less “prosocial” based on how much money they gave away in a computer game. In each of two dozen trials, participants were offered $10, shown a head shot and pseudonym for another player, and then allowed five seconds to decide “how much $ would you like to offer?” – knowing they’d get to keep the rest. It was real money, and the recipients were real people. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)


Volume 143 Issue 05
Parasitology, Volume 143 Issue 05 Parasitology is an important specialist journal covering the latest advances in the subject. It publishes original research and review papers on all aspects of parasitology and host-parasite relationships, including the latest discoveries in parasite biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, ecology and epidemiology in the context of the biological, medical and veterinary sciences. Included in the subscription price are two special issues which contain reviews of current hot topics, one of which is the proceedings of the annual Symposia of the British Society for Parasitology , while the second, covering areas of significant topical interest, is commissioned by the editors and the editorial board. (Source: Parasitology)


Medical News Today: What is the gut microbiota? What is the human microbiome?
The microbiota and microbiome of the human body have been researched intensively in recent years. Find out about what we now know about them and what they mean for our health. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


A Cytogenomic Approach in a Case of Syndromic XY Gonadal Dysgenesis
This is the first molecular characterization of a female XY patient with an Xp duplication due to an X;22 translocation. Array CGH detected a copy number gain of ∼36 Mb in the Xp22.33p21.1 region involving 150 genes. Clinical and molecular studies described in the literature have suggested DAX1 duplication as the major cause responsible for a sex reversal phenotype. Additionally, the interaction between genes and their possible role in clinical features are presented to support the discussion on genotype-phenotype correlation in cases of syndromic XY gonadal dysgenesis.Sex Dev (Source: Sexual Development)


Garbage Pickings Get Storks to Stop Migrating
Some white storks have stopped migrating from Europe to sub-Saharan Africa in the winter, because of the availability of food in landfills. &nbsp; &nbsp; -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


Genetic cause found for loss of beta cells during diabetes development
(University of Montreal) New research, just published in the prestigious international scientific journal Nature Genetics, has discovered that a common genetic defect in beta cells may underlie both known forms of diabetes. Thanks to our genetic make-up, some of us have beta cells that are tough and robust, while others have beta cells that are fragile and can't handle stress. It is these people who develop diabetes, either type 1 or type 2. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Fighting high anxiety with fly anxiety
(Cell Press) Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of all brain disorders, and yet there's been little progress in drug treatments for anxiety in more than 50 years. Now, researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on March 24 suggest that studies in flies might help to elucidate fundamental mechanisms underlying anxiety and point the way to new anti-anxiety treatments. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Obesity Day to highlight growing obesity epidemic in Europe
(European Association for the Study of Obesity) The growing obesity epidemic, which is predicted to affect more than half of all European citizens by 2030, will be the focus of European Obesity Day to be held on May 21.According to World Health Organisation, obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. Its prevalence has tripled in many countries of the WHO European Region since the 1980s. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Study finds vast diversity among viruses that infect bacteria
(Washington University School of Medicine) Viruses that infect bacteria are among the most abundant life forms on Earth. Indeed, our oceans, soils and potentially even our bodies would be overrun with bacteria were it not for bacteria-eating viruses, called bacteriophages, that keep the microbial balance of ecological niches in check. Now, a new study suggests that bacteriophages made of RNA likely play a much larger role in shaping the bacterial makeup of worldwide habitats than previously recognized. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Saving sunshine for a rainy day: New catalyst offers efficient storage of green energy
(University of Toronto Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering) We can't control when the wind blows and when the sun shines, so finding efficient ways to store energy from alternative sources remains an urgent research problem. Now, a group led by Professor Ted Sargent at the University of Toronto's Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering may have a solution inspired by nature. The team has designed the most efficient catalyst for storing energy in chemical form, just like plants do during photosynthesis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


UD researchers examine ways to break down, track synthetic compound in herbicides
(University of Delaware) In laboratory research published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, scientists from the University of Delaware report on the use of manganese oxide, found in soil, to break down the herbicide glyphosate and to identify released phosphate and its byproducts. They exploring using oxygen isotopes to discriminate and track the sources of phosphorus compounds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Dartmouth study provides new knowledge for managing tree-killing bark beetles
(Dartmouth College) Outbreaks of the southern pine beetle can't be stopped by its main predator, but risks to forests from this tree-killing insect can be predicted with a simple, inexpensive monitoring program, according to a study by Dartmouth College and other institutions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Land bridges linking ancient India and Eurasia were 'freeways' for biodiversity exchange
(University of Kansas) University of Kansas graduate student Jesse Grismer has found that before the final collision of Eurasia and the Indian subcontinent, land bridges between the landmasses may have served as 'freeways' of biodiversity exchange that flowed in both directions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


EARTH: A long layover on the Bering Land Bridge
(American Geosciences Institute) In 2013, researchers uncovered the graves of two infants laid to rest about 11,500 years ago outside of what is now Fairbanks, Alaska. Researchers understood that these graves represented some of the earliest human migrants to North America, but were they more closely related to their Asian ancestors, or the modern-day residents of North and South America? Find out what the analysis of the infants' DNA tells us about early migration patterns in EARTH Magazine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Birmingham water science leads ecological survival battle
(University of Birmingham) Scientists at the University of Birmingham have developed tools to help restore vital ecosystems found in tropical mangrove forests around the world. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


New open source software for high resolution microscopy
(Bielefeld University) Bielefeld physicists report their new development in Nature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Data from 1800s can help researchers, forest managers maintain healthy forest ecosystems
(University of Missouri-Columbia) When seeking clues to how well conservation efforts are working in the present, sometimes scientists look to the past -- and there may be no better historical record than the forest surveys conducted in Missouri by the Bureau of Land Management in the 1800s. Using these historical records, University of Missouri researchers were able to shed new light on how the interaction of natural disturbances, such as wildfires, and human actions shape forest conditions and the ecosystem services that forests provide today. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


CRISPR library designer (CLD): software for multispecies design of single guide RNA libraries
Genetic screens using CRISPR/Cas9 are a powerful method for the functional analysis of genomes. (Source: Genome Biology)


Dynamics of BMP and Hes1/Hairy1 signaling in the dorsal neural tube underlies the transition from neural crest to definitive roof plate
The dorsal midline region of the neural tube that results from closure of the neural folds is generally termed the roof plate (RP). However, this domain is highly dynamic and complex, and is first transiently ... (Source: BMC Biology)


Genetic mouse embryo assay: improving performance and quality testing for assisted reproductive technology (ART) with a functional bioassay
Growing concerns about safety of ART on human gametes, embryos, clinical outcomes and long-term health of offspring require improved methods of risk assessment to provide functionally relevant assays for quali... (Source: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology)


MAP4K4 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma
This study was undertaken to explore the roles of MAP4K4 in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in HCC. Effects of overexpression and knockdown of MAP4K4 on the migration, invasion, and EMT of HCC cells were examined. The in vivo role of MAP4K4 in lung metastasis of HCC was determined in nude mice. The relationship between MAP4K4 expression and EMT in human HCC specimens was determined by immunohistochemistry. MAP4K4 overexpression significantly enhanced the migration and invasion of MHCC-97L HCC cells, whereas MAP4K4 silencing hindered the migration and invasion of MHCC-97H HCC cells. MAP4K4-overexpressing cells undergo EMT, which was accompanied by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of vimentin. In contrast, MAP4K4 silencing caused a reversion from a spi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Transforming growth factor-β1 in carcinogenesis, progression, and therapy in cervical cancer
Abstract Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays important roles in cervical tumor formation, invasion, progression, and metastasis. TGF-β1 functions as a tumor inhibitor in precancerous lesions and early stage cancers of cervix whereas as a tumor promoter in later stage. This switch from a tumor inhibitor to a tumor promoter might be due to various alterations in TGF-β signaling pathway, such as mutations or loss of expression of TGF-β receptors and SMAD proteins. Additionally, the oncoproteins of human papillomaviruses have been shown to stimulate TGF-β1 expression, which in turn suppresses host immune surveillance. Thus, in addition to driving tumor cell migration and metastasis, TGF-β1 is believed to play a key role in promoting h...


Coxsackievirus B5 Infection Induces Dysregulation of microRNAs Predicted to Target Known Type 1 Diabetes Risk Genes in Human Pancreatic Islets
In conclusion, we report the first global miRNA expression profiling of CVB5-infected human pancreatic islets. We propose that EVs disrupt the miRNA-directed suppression of proinflammatory factors within &beta;-cells, thereby resulting in an exacerbated antiviral immune response that promotes &beta;-cell destruction and eventual type 1 diabetes. (Source: Diabetes)


Paediatric non‐Hodgkin lymphoma ‐ perspectives in translational biology
Summary Exciting advances have been achieved for infants, children and adolescents diagnosed with, and treated for, non‐Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In spite of these successes, new frontiers are being paved to improve the prognosis for those who relapse or have resistant disease. This review summarizes some of the novel approaches and ideas in NHL monitoring, diagnosis and treatment as discussed at the 5th International Symposium on Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Non‐Hodgkin Lymphoma on October 22nd–24th 2015 in Varese, Italy. (Source: British Journal of Haematology)


Development of RNA Interference Trigger-Mediated Gene Silencing in Entamoeba invadens [Fungal and Parasitic Infections]
Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, is an important human pathogen and a leading parasitic cause of death. The organism has two life cycle stages, trophozoites, which are responsible for tissue invasion, and cysts, which are involved in pathogen transmission. Entamoeba invadens is the model system to study Entamoeba developmental biology, as high-grade regulated encystation and excystation are readily achievable. However, the lack of gene-silencing tools in E. invadens has limited the molecular studies that can be performed. Using the endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in Entamoeba, we developed an RNAi-based trigger gene-silencing approach in E. invadens. We demonstrate that a gene's coding region that has abundant antisense small RNAs (sRNAs) can trigger silencing of a g...


Ablative fractional laser enhances MAL-induced PpIX accumulation: Impact of laser channel density, incubation time and drug concentration
Conclusion MAL-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is augmented by enhancing AFL densities up to 5%. Further, this model indicates that incubation time as well as drug concentration of MAL may be reduced with laser pretreatment. (Source: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Ultra-efficient photocatalytic deprivation of methylene blue and biological activities of biogenic silver nanoparticles
In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesized using the aqueous extract of Lychee (Litchi chinensis) fruit peel and an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by several analytical techniques i.e. UV–Vis Spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction spectroscopy), EDX (electron dispersive X-ray), SAED (selected area electron diffraction), HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy), and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). HRTEM and XRD results indicated that the prepared AgNPs are spherical in shape, well dispersed and face centered cubic crystalline. AgNPs showed potent antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory con...


A novel microseeding method for the crystallization of membrane proteins in lipidic cubic phase
Random microseed matrix screening (rMMS), in which seed crystals are added to random crystallization screens, is an important breakthrough in soluble protein crystallization that increases the number of crystallization hits that are available for optimization. This greatly increases the number of soluble protein structures generated every year by typical structural biology laboratories. Inspired by this success, rMMS has been adapted to the crystallization of membrane proteins, making LCP seed stock by scaling up LCP crystallization conditions without changing the physical and chemical parameters that are critical for crystallization. Seed crystals are grown directly in LCP and, as with conventional rMMS, a seeding experiment is combined with an additive experiment. The new method was used...


Iron chelation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology Author(s): Petr Dusek, Susanne A Schneider, Jan Aaseth Disturbance of cerebral iron regulation is almost universal in neurodegenerative disorders. There is a growing body of evidence that increased iron deposits may contribute to degenerative changes. Thus, the effect of iron chelation therapy has been investigated in many neurological disorders including rare genetic syndromes with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation as well as common sporadic disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the role of iron in the etiology of neurodegeneration. Outcomes of studies investigating ...


Impact on CYP19A1 activity by mutations in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase
In this report we have studied the impact of mutations found the in POR on the enzymatic activity of CYP19A1. We expressed wild type as well mutant human POR proteins in bacteria and purified the recombinant proteins, which were then used in an in vitro reconstitution system in combination with CYP19A1 and lipids for enzymatic analysis. We found that several mutations as well as polymorphisms in human POR can cause reduction of CYP19A1 activity. This would affect metabolism of estrogens in people with variations of POR allele. The POR mutants Y181D and R616X were found to have no activity in supporting CYP19A1 reactions. The POR mutations Y607C and delF646 showed a loss of 60–90% activity and two polymorphic forms of POR, R316W and G413S showed similar to WT activity. One POR variant, Q1...


Reactive oxygen species effect PASMCs apoptosis via regulation of dynamin-related protein 1 in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension
In this study, ROS inhibitor, hypoxic rodent PAH models, small interfering RNA, polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used. We determined that ROS, mainly derive from mitochondria, mediate mitochondria fission of PASMCs contributing to pulmonary vascular remodeling. Meanwhile, we also observed that hypoxia-induced DRP1 expression depends on ROS generation, especially mitochondrial ROS (mROS). Moreover, the levels of ROS and mROS evoked by hypoxia were regulated by DRP1. Furthermore, we verified the apoptosis suppression of PASMCs under hypoxia due to the interaction between ROS/mROS and DRP1. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy which is...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Design, synthesis and evaluation of molecularly targeted hypoxia-activated prodrugs
Nature Protocols 11, 781 (2016). doi:10.1038/nprot.2016.034 Authors: Liam J O'Connor, Cindy Cazares-K&#246;rner, Jaideep Saha, Charles N G Evans, Michael R L Stratford, Ester M Hammond & Stuart J Conway Regions of insufficient oxygen supply&#8212;hypoxia&#8212;occur in diverse contexts across biology in both healthy and diseased organisms. The difference in the chemical environment between a hypoxic biological system and one with normal oxygen levels provides an opportunity for targeting compound delivery to hypoxic regions by using (Source: Nature Protocols)


Genomic Characterization and Comparison of Multi-Regional and Pooled Tumor Biopsy Specimens
In conclusion, sequencing pooled samples has the benefit of detecting many variants with moderate allele frequency that occur in partial regions, but it is not applicable for detecting low-frequency mutations that require deep sequencing. (Source: PLoS One)


DNAdigest and Repositive: Connecting the World of Genomic Data
by Nadezda V. Kovalevskaya, Charlotte Whicher, Timothy D. Richardson, Craig Smith, Jana Grajciarova, Xocas Cardama, José Moreira, Adrian Alexa, Amanda A. McMurray, Fiona G. G. Nielsen There is no unified place where genomics researchers can search through all available raw genomic data in a way similar to OMIM for genes or Uniprot for proteins. With the recent increase in the amount of genomic data that is being produced and the ever-growing promises of precision medicine, this is becoming more and more of a problem. DNAdigest is a charity working to promote efficient sharing of human genomic data to improve the outcome of genomic research and diagnostics for the benefit of patients. Repositive, a social enterprise spin-out of DNAdigest, is building an online platform that indexes genomi...


Separable Roles for a Caenorhabditis elegans RMI1 Homolog in Promoting and Antagonizing Meiotic Crossovers Ensure Faithful Chromosome Inheritance
by Marlène Jagut, Patricia Hamminger, Alexander Woglar, Sophia Millonigg, Luis Paulin, Martin Mikl, Maria Rosaria Dello Stritto, Lois Tang, Cornelia Habacher, Angela Tam, Miguel Gallach, Arndt von Haeseler, Anne M. Villeneuve, Verena Jantsch During the first meiotic division, crossovers (COs) between homologous chromosomes ensure their correct segregation. COs are produced by homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). As more DSBs are induced than COs, mechanisms are required to establish a regulated number of COs and to repair remaining intermediates as non-crossovers (NCOs). We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RMI1 homolog-1 (RMH-1) functions during meiosis to promote both CO and NCO HR at appropriate chromosomal sites. RMH-1 accumu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Hyperexpansion of RNA Bacteriophage Diversity
by Siddharth R. Krishnamurthy, Andrew B. Janowski, Guoyan Zhao, Dan Barouch, David Wang Bacteriophage modulation of microbial populations impacts critical processes in ocean, soil, and animal ecosystems. However, the role of bacteriophages with RNA genomes (RNA bacteriophages) in these processes is poorly understood, in part because of the limited number of known RNA bacteriophage species. Here, we identify partial genome sequences of 122 RNA bacteriophage phylotypes that are highly divergent from each other and from previously described RNA bacteriophages. These novel RNA bacteriophage sequences were present in samples collected from a range of ecological niches worldwide, including invertebrates and extreme microbial sediment, demonstrating that they are more widely distributed than pre...


Dynamic Allostery Mediated by a Conserved Tryptophan in the Tec Family Kinases
by Nikita Chopra, Thomas E. Wales, Raji E. Joseph, Scott E. Boyken, John R. Engen, Robert L. Jernigan, Amy H. Andreotti Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in immune signaling and is associated with the immunological disorder X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Our previous findings showed that the Tec kinases are allosterically activated by the adjacent N-terminal linker. A single tryptophan residue in the N-terminal 17-residue linker mediates allosteric activation, and its mutation to alanine leads to the complete loss of activity. Guided by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results, we have employed Molecular Dynamics simulations, Principal Component Analysis, Community Analysis and measures of node central...


Cellular Growth Arrest and Persistence from Enzyme Saturation
by J. Christian J. Ray, Michelle L. Wickersheim, Ameya P. Jalihal, Yusuf O. Adeshina, Tim F. Cooper, Gábor Balázsi Metabolic efficiency depends on the balance between supply and demand of metabolites, which is sensitive to environmental and physiological fluctuations, or noise, causing shortages or surpluses in the metabolic pipeline. How cells can reliably optimize biomass production in the presence of metabolic fluctuations is a fundamental question that has not been fully answered. Here we use mathematical models to predict that enzyme saturation creates distinct regimes of cellular growth, including a phase of growth arrest resulting from toxicity of the metabolic process. Noise can drive entry of single cells into growth arrest while a fast-growing majority sustains the population....


ISCB’s Initial Reaction to The New England Journal of Medicine Editorial on Data Sharing
by Bonnie Berger, Terry Gaasterland, Thomas Lengauer, Christine Orengo, Bruno Gaeta, Scott Markel, Alfonso Valencia (Source: PLoS Computational Biology)


Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo
In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Revealing the True Incidence of Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza in Finland during the First Two Seasons — An Analysis Based on a Dynamic Transmission Model
by Mikhail Shubin, Artem Lebedev, Outi Lyytikäinen, Kari Auranen The threat of the new pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 imposed a heavy burden on the public health system in Finland in 2009-2010. An extensive vaccination campaign was set up in the middle of the first pandemic season. However, the true number of infected individuals remains uncertain as the surveillance missed a large portion of mild infections. We constructed a transmission model to simulate the spread of influenza in the Finnish population. We used the model to analyse the two first years (2009-2011) of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Finland. Using data from the national surveillance of influenza and data on close person-to-person (social) contacts in the population, we estimated that 6% (90% credible interval 5.1 – 6.7%) of the popu...


Arylazolyl(azinyl)thioacetanilides: Part 19: Discovery of Novel Substituted Imidazo[4,5‐b]pyridin‐2‐ylthioacetanilides as Potent HIV NNRTIs Via a Structure‐based Bioisosterism Approach
With the continuation of our unremitting efforts toward the discovery of potent HIV‐1 NNRTIs, a series of novel imidazo[4,5‐b]pyridin‐2‐ylthioacetanilides were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antiviral activities through combining bioisosteric replacement and structure‐based drug design. Almost all of the title compounds displayed moderate to good activities against wild‐type (wt) HIV‐1 strain with EC50 values ranging from 0.059 to 1.41 μm in a cell‐based antiviral assay. Thereinto, compounds 12 and 13 were the most active two analogues possessing an EC50 value of 0.059 and 0.073 μm against wt HIV‐1, respectively, which was much more effective than the control drug nevirapine (EC50 = 0.26 μm) and comparable to delavirdine (EC50 = 0.038 μm). In addition,...


β‐lactoglobulin–pectin Nanoparticle‐based Oral Drug Delivery System for Potential Treatment of Colon Cancer
Colon cancer is one of the most common internal malignancies, and conventional chemotherapy is not effective in its treatment. Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. The physicochemical properties of β‐lactoglobulin, the main whey protein of cow's milk, such as its stability at low pH, its resistance to gastric protease, and its ability to bind hydrophobic ligands, give it potential for transporting drugs specifically for colon cancer. In the present research, β‐lactoglobulin–pectin nanoparticles were designed to transfer a newly synthesized, anticancer platinum complex (bipyridine ethyl dithiocarbamate Pt(II) nitrate), to the colon. The effects of multiple factors on the size and the colloidal stability of the nanoparticles were studied using...


Swarming motility plays the major role in migration during tomato root colonization by Bacillus subtilis SWR01
This study indicates new ways to enhance PGPR rhizoplane colonization, which is useful in agricultural applications. Graphical abstract (Source: Biological Control)


Effects of Bacillus velezensis strain BAC03 in promoting plant growth
In this study, BAC03 was tested for potential growth promotion on nine selected types of plants, including beet, carrot, cucumber, pepper, potato, radish, squash, tomato, and turnip, at the concentration of 105 colony forming unit cm-3 potting mix under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that BAC03 increased the growth of some tested plants at various levels in different plant parts. Application of BAC03 at 10 days after planting was associated in radish with the highest biomass gain compared to applications at other stages. Multiple applications of BAC03 giving the same total amount of inoculum resulted in higher weights of radish roots and leaves. That BAC03 produced indole-3-acetic acid and ammonia, as well as showed a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylatedeaminase activity may be relate...


Rapid formulation assessment of filgrastim therapeutics by a thermal stress test
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Biologicals Author(s): Mahmoud Alebouyeh, Abbas Tahzibi, Sareh Yaghoobzadeh, Elnaz Tamaskany Zahedy, Shiva Kiumarsi, Mojtaba Hadi Soltanabad, Saleh Shahbazi, Hossein Amini The biosimilar versions of recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh-Met-G-CSF, filgrastim) are now widely available. Because changes to the formulation often lead to subtle differences, there is a critical need to define techniques to test and insure the quality of these products. The present study was designed to compare formulation and thermal stress stability of filgrastim products. The formulation ingredients including acetate, polysorbate 80, and sorbitol were determined using state-of-the-art validated analytical methods....<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Production, purification, and characterization of a novel cold-active superoxide dismutase from the Antarctic strain Aspergillus glaucus 363
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016 Source:Fungal Biology Author(s): Radoslav Abrashev, Georges Feller, Nedelina Kostadinova, Ekaterina Krumova, Zlatka Alexieva, Maria Gerginova, Boryana Spasova, Jeni Miteva-Staleva, Spassen Vassilev, Maria Angelova The Antarctic fungal strain Aspergillus glaucus 363 produces cold-active (CA) Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD). The strain contains at least one gene encoding Cu/Zn-SOD that exhibited high homology with the corresponding gene of other Aspergillus species. To our knowledge, this is the first nucleotide sequence of a CA Cu/Zn-SOD gene in fungi. An effective laboratory technology for A. glaucus SOD production in 3 L bioreactors was developed on the basis of transient cold-shock treatment. The temperature downshift to 10 ...


Single parameter of inverse proportion between mortality and age could determine all mortality indicators in the first year of life
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Josef Dolejs Mortality increase with age in adult population has been studied and modeled by many authors, but relatively little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth. Data split in more detailed age categories can newly test mortality decrease with age. Age trajectories of mortality are studied in 20 age categories in the specific age interval 1–365 days. Four basic models mentioned in literature are tested here. The linear model and the linear model with the specific slope −1 in the log–log scale represent the most successful formalism. Mortality indicators describing the first year could be determined by a single parameter of the model with slope −1 in the ...


A Cytogenomic Approach in a Case of Syndromic XY Gonadal Dysgenesis.
Authors: Simioni M, Lopes Monlleó I, Costa de Queiroz CM, Fragoso Peixoto Gazzaneo I, Lima do Nascimento DL, Luna de Omena Filho R, Santos da Cruz Piveta C, Palandi de Mello M, Gil-da-Silva-Lopes VL Abstract This is the first molecular characterization of a female XY patient with an Xp duplication due to an X;22 translocation. Array CGH detected a copy number gain of ∼36 Mb in the Xp22.33p21.1 region involving 150 genes. Clinical and molecular studies described in the literature have suggested DAX1 duplication as the major cause responsible for a sex reversal phenotype. Additionally, the interaction between genes and their possible role in clinical features are presented to support the discussion on genotype-phenotype correlation in cases of syndromic XY gonadal dysgenesis. ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


TP53 Regulated Inhibitor Of Apoptosis 1 (TRIAP1) stable silencing Increases late apoptosis by Upregulation of caspase 9 and APAF1 in RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cell line
Conclusion Stable silencing of TRIAP1 induces late apoptosis through APAF1/Caspase 9 pathway at least in RPMI8226 cell line, suggesting that it could be exploited as a potential target at least for a subgroup of MM patients. General significance In the present study, we demonstrated effects of TRIAP1 silencing on RPMI8226 MM cell line and established its mechanism mediated through APAF1 and Caspase 9. No relevant effect was found after gene silencing in U266 cell line. (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease)


Heme Synthesis and Acquisition in Bacterial Pathogens
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Jacob E. Choby, Eric P. Skaar Bacterial pathogens require the iron-containing cofactor heme to cause disease. Heme is essential to the function of hemoproteins which are involved in energy generation by the electron transport chain, detoxification of host immune effectors, and other processes. During infection bacterial pathogens must synthesize heme or acquire heme from the host; however, host heme is sequestered in high affinity hemoproteins. Pathogens have evolved elaborate strategies to acquire heme from host sources, particularly hemoglobin, and both heme acquisition and synthesis are important for pathogenesis. Paradoxically, excess heme is toxic to bacteria and pathogens must rely on ...


Evidence for a Helix-Clutch Mechanism of Transmembrane Signaling in a Bacterial Chemoreceptor
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Peter Ames, Samuel Hunter, John S. Parkinson The Escherichia coli Tsr protein contains a periplasmic serine-binding domain that transmits ligand occupancy information to a cytoplasmic kinase-control domain to regulate the cell’s flagellar motors. The Tsr input and output domains communicate through sequential conformational changes transmitted through a transmembrane helix (TM2), a five-residue control cable helix at the membrane-cytoplasm interface, and a four-helix HAMP bundle. Changes in serine occupancy are known to promote TM2 piston displacements in one subunit of the Tsr homodimer. We explored how such piston motions might be relayed through the control cable to reach the input AS1...


Edge density based automatic detection of inflammation in colonoscopy videos
Colon cancer is one of the deadliest diseases where early detection can prolong life and can increase the survival rates. The early stage disease is typically associated with polyps and mucosa inflammation. The often used diagnostic tools rely on high quality videos obtained from colonoscopy or capsule endoscope. The state-of-the-art image processing techniques of video analysis for automatic detection of anomalies use statistical and neural network methods. In this paper, we investigated a simple alternative model-based approach using texture analysis. (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)


Rhythm-based heartbeat duration normalization for atrial fibrillation detection
Screening of atrial fibrillation (AF) for high-risk patients including all patients aged 65 years and older is important for prevention of risk of stroke. Different technologies such as modified blood pressure monitor, single lead ECG-based finger-probe, and smart phone using plethysmogram signal have been emerging for this purpose. All these technologies use irregularity of heartbeat duration as a feature for AF detection. We have investigated a normalization method of heartbeat duration for improved AF detection. (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Signal exchange and integration during self-fusion in filamentous fungi
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell &amp; Developmental Biology Author(s): André Fleißner, Stephanie Herzog Growth and propagation of filamentous ascomycete fungi commonly involves vegetative cell fusion. In the red bread mold Neurospora crassa and many other ascomycete species, fusion occurs between germinating spores during colony formation and between hyphal branches in established mycelia. Both fusion processes promote the development and behavior of the fungal colony as a supra-cellular network. Germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa rely on an unusual mode of cellular communication, in which the two fusion partners likely alternate between signal emission and reception, thereby establishing a kind of “cellular dialog”. In recent yea...


Peri-operative biology in primary breast cancer: a credible therapeutic target
Abstract Over the last 25 years, there has been a growing body of basic science, modeling, and clinical data suggesting that the peri-operative period in the treatment of primary breast cancer is dynamic and can be manipulated to improve long-term outcomes. Clinical data have demonstrated early peaks of hazards for recurrence and emphasized the relationship of these to peri-operative events. More recently, clinical trial data with surgical oophorectomy at different times in the menstrual cycle, peri-operative progesterone, and anti-inflammatory drugs suggest that interventional studies are particularly well justified, given the increasing recognition of the costs both financially and clinically of current systemic regimens. (Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment)


Galectin-3 regulates metastatic capabilities and chemotherapy sensitivity in epithelial ovarian carcinoma via NF-κB pathway
In this study, we aimed to explore whether Gal-3 promoted progression and carboplatin resistance in EOC via NF-κB pathway. Plasmid transfection and RNA interference were used to upregulate or downregulate the expression of Gal-3 in ovarian cancer cell lines. Then, the expression of Gal-3 and the protein expressions of phosphorylation NF-κB pathway molecules were further detected by Western blot. Transwell migration assay was employed to detect the effects of Gal-3 on the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cell lines. After treatment with carboplatin, flow cytometry (FCM) was employed to detect the effects of Gal-3 on carboplatin-induced apoptosis. Immunofluorescence technique was used to examine the translocation of phosphorylated P65 into the nucleus in ovarian cancer cells after ...


Rap2B GTPase: structure, functions, and regulation
Abstract Rap2B GTPase, a member of Ras-related protein superfamily, was first discovered from a platelet cDNA library in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been reported to play an important role in regulating cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization, cell growth, and proliferation. It can be stimulated and suppressed by a wide range of external and internal inducers, circulating between GTP-bound active state and GDP-bound inactive state. Increasing focus on Ras signaling pathway reveals critical effects of Rap2B on tumorigenesis. In particular, Rap2B behaves in a p53-dependent manner in regulation of apoptosis and migration. Apart from being an oncogenic activator, Rap2B has been found to participate in many other physiological events via diverse downstream effect...


Molecular genetics of early-onset Alzheimer disease revisited
Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Alzheimer's &amp; Dementia Author(s): Rita Cacace, Kristel Sleegers, Christine Van Broeckhoven As the discovery of the Alzheimer disease (AD) genes, APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2, in families with autosomal dominant early-onset AD (EOAD), gene discovery in familial EOAD came more or less to a standstill. Only 5% of EOAD patients are carrying a pathogenic mutation in one of the AD genes or a APOE risk allele ε4, most of EOAD patients remain unexplained. Here, we aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of EOAD genetics and its role in ongoing approaches to understand the biology of AD and disease symptomatology as well as developing new therapeutics. Next, we explored the possible molecular mechanisms that might underlie the missin...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Quality of life of Brazilian women with urinary incontinence and the impact on their sexual function
Sexual function may be affected in women with urinary incontinence (UI), but data regarding this association are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sociodemographic characteristics in the sexual function of Brazilian women with UI. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology)


Is chronic urinary infection a cause of overactive bladder?
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a diagnosis resulting from a combination of multiple underlying factors. Current traditional treatments are based on anticholinergic blockade which have marginal benefits and are associated with poor tolerability and continuation rates. There is mounting evidence that chronic low grade bacterial bladder colonisation may exacerbate OAB symptoms and may explain why the current treatment strategies are not always successful. However, standard diagnostic laboratory tests to identify the presence of such bacterial infection are unreliable. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology)


Colposcopists’ experiences of HPV Test of Cure for the follow up of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia
To survey lead colposcopists in England to explore their views on the recently introduced HPV Test of Cure (TOC) following treatment for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and to determine the extent to which it has impacted their clinical practice and affected their patients. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology)


Risk factors for residual disease after cervical conization in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 and positive surgical margins
To evaluate risk factors for the persistence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade ≥2 following repeat surgical procedures in patients with CIN grades 2 and 3 and positive surgical margins. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology)


Does synchronous endometrioid endometrial cancer have any prognostic effect on Stage I endometrioid ovarian cancer?
Conclusion Patients with Stage 1 EOC have excellent long-term survival. The presence of SEEC does not influence the prognosis of patients with Stage 1 EOC, even in the presence of deep myometrial invasion. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Comparison of plasma fetuin A levels in patients with early-onset pre-eclampsia vs late-onset pre-eclampsia
Conclusion Early- and late-onset PE were associated with lower and higher levels of FA, respectively. A relationship was found between inflammation and early-onset PE but not late-onset PE. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)


Simple Factors Associated with Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity after Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of the Thorax: A Pooled Analysis of 88 Studies
Risk factors for radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) were analyzed from 88 published studies (7752 patients). The overall rate of RILT is relatively low after thoracic SBRT. Adverse risk factors for RILT after SBRT include older age, larger tumor size and greater lung dose-volume exposure as measured by mean lung dose and volume of lung receiving greater than 20 Gy. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (pcALCL): An International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) Multi-institutional Experience
pcALCL is radiosensitive tumor with 95% CCR. Most ILROG members used doses in the range of 30-39 Gy. However, lower doses also appear effective, regardless of T stage. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Spinal Metastases in the Postoperative Setting: A Secondary Analysis of Mature Phase I-II Trials
We evaluated the outcomes of patients with spinal metastases treated with postoperative stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) on prospective phase I-II protocols and found durable rates of treated tumor control (TC) after a long median follow-up. Despite the fact that the majority of patients had radioresistant tumors and almost half received prior spinal radiation therapy, the 1-year TC was 85% and there was minimal neurologic toxicity observed. Thus, postoperative SBRT offers a favorable risk/benefit ratio. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


Clinical experience and evaluation of patient treatment verification with a transit dosimeter
This prospective clinical study assessed the performance of an electronic portal imaging device dose verification algorithm in capturing treatment delivery errors of IMRT beams. The results of this study could be used to set action levels to sensitise systematic and random error detection of dose delivery, and identify clinical implementation issues of the technique. The evaluated protocol was able to detect anatomical changes and potential patient set-up inaccuracy that could lead to dose delivery errors. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


QOL Outcomes from a Phase II Trial of Short Course Radiotherapy Followed by FOLFOX Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Rectal Cancer
A regimen of 5 fractions of pelvic radiation therapy followed by 4 cycles of mFOLFOX6 [5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, leucovorin] was evaluated as a preoperative regimen for cT3-4 rectal cancer in a prospective phase II trial. Patient-reported QOL outcomes remained unchanged at 1-year post-treatment. QOL outcomes did not correlate with disease recurrence, pathologic complete response, pathologic T-stage downstaging or physician-documented toxicity. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


CRISPR/Cas9: an advanced tool for editing plant genomes.
Authors: Samanta MK, Dey A, Gayen S Abstract To meet current challenges in agriculture, genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) is a powerful tool for basic and applied plant biology research. Here, we describe the principle and application of available genome editing tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat associated CRISPR/Cas9 system. Among these SSNs, CRISPR/Cas9 is the most recently characterized and rapidly developing genome editing technology, and has been successfully utilized in a wide variety of organisms. This review specifically illustrates the power of CRISPR/Cas9 as a tool for plant genome engineering, and describes the stren...


Regulated protein depletion by the auxin-inducible degradation system in Drosophila melanogaster.
Authors: Trost M, Blattner AC, Lehner CF Abstract The analysis of consequences resulting after experimental elimination of gene function has been and will continue to be an extremely successful strategy in biological research. Mutational elimination of gene function has been widely used in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference is used extensively as well. In the fly, exceptionally precise temporal and spatial control over elimination of gene function can be achieved in combination with sophisticated transgenic approaches and clonal analyses. However, the methods that act at the gene and transcript level cannot eliminate protein products which are already present at the time when mutant cells are generated or RNA interference is started. Targeted inducible protein degrad...


Can Lionel Messi's brain slow down time passing?
Authors: Jafari S, Smith LS Abstract It seems that seeing others in slow-motion by heroes does not belong only to movies. When Lionel Messi plays football, you can hardly see anything from him that other players cannot do. Then why he is not stoppable really? It seems the answer may be that opponents do not have enough time to do what they want; because in Messi's neural system, time passes slower. In differential equations that model a single neuron, this speed can be generated by multiplying an equal term in all equations. Or maybe interactions between neurons and the structure of neural networks play this role. PMID: 27010676 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chronobiology International)


Identification of circadian-related gene expression profiles in entrained breast cancer cell lines.
Authors: Gutiérrez-Monreal MA, Treviño V, Moreno-Cuevas JE, Scott SP Abstract Cancer cells have broken circadian clocks when compared to their normal tissue counterparts. Moreover, it has been shown in breast cancer that disruption of common circadian oscillations is associated with a more negative prognosis. Numerous studies, focused on canonical circadian genes in breast cancer cell lines, have suggested that there are no mRNA circadian-like oscillations. Nevertheless, cancer cell lines have not been extensively characterized and it is unknown to what extent the circadian oscillations are disrupted. We have chosen representative non-cancerous and cancerous breast cell lines (MCF-10A, MCF-7, ZR-75-30, MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1954) in order to determine the degree to which the circadi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Late circadian phase in adults and children is correlated with use of high color temperature light at home at night.
Authors: Higuchi S, Lee SI, Kozaki T, Harada T, Tanaka I Abstract Light is the strongest synchronizer of human circadian rhythms, and exposure to residential light at night reportedly causes a delay of circadian rhythms. The present study was conducted to investigate the association between color temperature of light at home and circadian phase of salivary melatonin in adults and children. Twenty healthy children (mean age: 9.7 year) and 17 of their parents (mean age: 41.9 years) participated in the experiment. Circadian phase assessments were made with dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). There were large individual variations in DLMO both in adults and children. The average DLMO in adults and in children were 21:50 ± 1:12 and 20:55 ± 0:44, respectively. The average illuminance and...


Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and pomegranate influence circadian gene expression and period length.
Authors: Loizides-Mangold U, Koren-Gluzer M, Skarupelova S, Makhlouf AM, Hayek T, Aviram M, Dibner C Abstract The circadian timing system regulates key aspects of mammalian physiology. Here, we analyzed the effect of the endogenous antioxidant paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated lipolactonase that hydrolyses lipid peroxides and attenuates atherogenesis, on circadian gene expression in C57BL/6J and PON1KO mice fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). Expression levels of core-clock transcripts Nr1d1, Per2, Cry2 and Bmal1 were altered in skeletal muscle in PON1-deficient mice in response to HFD. These findings were supported by circadian bioluminescence reporter assessments in mouse C2C12 and human primary myotubes, synchronized in vitro, where adminis...


Month of birth is associated with mortality among older people in Japan: Findings from the JAGES cohort.
This study examined the association between MOB and mortality among the healthy elderly in Japan, where a practice of traditional age reckoning was employed up until the late 1940s. The results showed male participants born in December were more likely to die earlier while those born in January had lower mortality. It is possible that social factors in early life, such as the time period when a birth is officially registered, may have implications for health that stretch across the life course. PMID: 27010376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chronobiology International)


A Diffusion Approximation Based on Renewal Processes with Applications to Strongly Biased Run-Tumble Motion.
Authors: Thygesen UH Abstract We consider organisms which use a renewal strategy such as run-tumble when moving in space, for example to perform chemotaxis in chemical gradients. We derive a diffusion approximation for the motion, applying a central limit theorem due to Anscombe for renewal-reward processes; this theorem has not previously been applied in this context. Our results extend previous work, which has established the mean drift but not the diffusivity. For a classical model of tumble rates applied to chemotaxis, we find that the resulting chemotactic drift saturates to the swimming velocity of the organism when the chemical gradients grow increasingly steep. The dispersal becomes anisotropic in steep gradients, with larger dispersal across the gradient than along the gra...


Assessing Cardiac Metabolism: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.
Authors: Taegtmeyer H, Young ME, Lopaschuk GD, Abel ED, Brunengraber H, Darley-Usmar V, Des Rosiers C, Gerszten R, Glatz JF, Griffin JL, Gropler RJ, Holzhuetter HG, Kizer JR, Lewandowski ED, Malloy CR, Neubauer S, Peterson LR, Portman MA, Recchia FA, Van Eyk JE, Wang TJ Abstract In a complex system of interrelated reactions, the heart converts chemical energy to mechanical energy. Energy transfer is achieved through coordinated activation of enzymes, ion channels, and contractile elements, as well as structural and membrane proteins. The heart's needs for energy are difficult to overestimate. At a time when the cardiovascular research community is discovering a plethora of new molecular methods to assess cardiac metabolism, the methods remain scattered in the literature. The presen...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


A New 3D View of Richard III's Humble Grave
Photogrammetry highlights features of the English king's skeleton and resting place -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


A New 3-D View of Richard III's Humble Grave
Photogrammetry highlights features of the English king's skeleton and resting place -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


What Lab-Grown Human Hearts Could Mean For The Donor Crisis
This study certainly provides a direction which may lead to such a future. ... From this, we can identify that developing newer biomaterials would greatly enhance the viability of the approach, and needs further investigation." Related Coverage: How 3D Printing Could End The Deadly Shortage Of Donor Organs -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)


Getting Tattooed Makes Your Immune System Stronger
This article was originally posted on Inverse. By Yasmin Tayag It's easy to tell where the Game's from. It's tattooed on his face. The Los Angeles rapper has so many tattoos, his artist says he's running out of room, and it all perpetuates the long-held belief by many that tattoos equal toughness. And those people might be right, at least scientifically speaking: The American Journal of Human Biology suggests that getting inked can actually toughen up your immune system. University of Alabama researchers have found that tattooing prepares the immune system to battle "stressors" associated with soft tissue damage. The act of tattooing seems to put the immune system on heightened alert, in turn making the body better at healing itself after getting inked. #lilwaynetattoo #tattoo #lilwayne...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


'Superstar doctor' fired from Swedish institute over research 'lies'
Paolo Macchiarini is alleged to have continued with new method of windpipe surgery despite it not working, with six of eight patients later dyingPaolo Macchiarini was once feted as a medical superstar, known as a trailblazer in the field of stem cell research who had revolutionised windpipe surgery and a personal doctor to VIPs – he claimed to have operated on everyone from Pope Francis to the Obamas.But on Wednesday Macchiarini’s employer, Sweden’s prestigious Karolinska University (KI), announced it had fired the Italian with immediate effect. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)


Savage world for frogs: Biologist discovers clues about frog deaths
A researcher is obsessed with frogs and figuring out why they are dying at an unprecedented rate around the world. Her latest research suggests that natural selection as well as other evolutionary forces have shaped the evolution of immune genes in lowland leopard frog populations helping them survive a deadly fungus that's killing off many other species worldwide. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Thymidylate Limitation Potentiates Cephalosporin Activity toward Enterococci via an Exopolysaccharide-Based Mechanism
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.5b01041 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)


Streamlining Recombinant Protein Production
Use of recombinant proteins as therapeutics has become an attractive strategy for altering the biology of disease progression and offers significant commercial opportunities. However, bringing a recombinant protein to market requires a substantial investment of time and resources, and the process is generally complex and subject to technical pitfalls. (Source: Pharmaceutical Online News)


3-Econsystems: MicroRNAs, Receptors, and Latent Viruses; Some Insights Biology Can Gain from Economic Theory
Hanan Polansky, Adrian Javaherian (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


A Shot against Cancer
Vaccines that target cancer cells using their own DNA could help eliminate tumors and prevent recurrences -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


Mixing Up the Pieces of the Desferrioxamine B Jigsaw Defines the Biosynthetic Sequence Catalyzed by DesD
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00056 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)


The mating system of the true fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni and its sister‐species, Bactrocera neohumeralis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Insect Science)


Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress
Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity an...


The complex translocation (9;14;14) involving IGH and CEBPE genes suggests a new subgroup in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia
We report here the case of a 5-year-old girl with B-ALL, positive for CD19, CD38 and HLA-DR. A direct technique and G-banding were used for chromosomal analysis and fluorescentin situ hybridization (FISH) with BAC probes was used to investigate a possible rearrangement of the IGH andCEBPE genes. The karyotype exhibit the chromosomal aberration 46,XX,del(9)(p21),t(14;14)(q11;q32). FISH with dual-color break-apartIGH-specific and CEPBE-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes showed a complex t(9;14;14) associated with a deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and paired box gene 5 (PAX5) at 9p21-13 and duplication of the fusion gene IGH-CEBPE. (Source: Genetics and Molecular Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Genotypic diversity of the Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) and their HLA class I Ligands in a Saudi population
Abstract Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) have been used as good markers for the study of genetic predisposition in many diseases and in human genetic population dynamics. In this context, we have investigated the genetic diversity of KIR genes and their main HLA class I ligands in Saudi population and compared the data with other studies of neighboring populations. One hundred and fourteen randomly selected healthy Saudi subjects were genotyped for the presence or absence of 16 KIR genes and their HLA-C1, -C2, -Bw4Thr80 and Bw4Ile80 groups, using a PCR-SSP technique. The results show the occurrence of the framework genes (3DL2, 3DL3 and 2DL4) and the pseudogenes (2DP1 and 3DP1) at highest frequencies. All inhibitory KIR (iKIR) genes appeared at higher frequencies than activ...


Lack of detection of human papillomavirus DNA in prostate carcinomas in patients from northeastern Brazil
This study included 104 tissue samples from primary prostate carcinoma cases. HPV DNA was purified and then amplified using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ degenerate primer sets that detect a wide range of HPV types, and with specific PCR primers sets for E6 and E7 HPV regions to detect HPV 16. None of the samples showed amplification products of HPV DNA for primer sets MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+, or the specific primer set for the E6 and E7 HPV regions. HPV infection, thus, does not seem to be one of the causes of prostate cancer in the population studied. (Source: Genetics and Molecular Biology)


The prognostic value of the serum ferritin in a southern Brazilian cohort of patients with Gaucher disease
In conclusion, although serum ferritin did not correlate with disease severity, after a median 28.8 months of treatment, clinical outcomes had clearly improved, and ferritin levels had decreased. (Source: Genetics and Molecular Biology)


Tetrasomy 3q26.32-q29 due to a supernumerary marker chromosome in a child with pigmentary mosaicism of Ito
This study comprised clinical description and cytogenetic analysis of a child with PMI. The G-banded karyotype analysis revealed a supernumerary marker chromosome in 76% of the analyzed metaphases from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Array genomic hybridization analysis showed a copy number gain between 3q26.32-3q29, of approximately 20.5 Mb. Karyotype was defined as 47,XX,+mar[38]/46,XX[12].arr 3q26.32-3q29(177,682,859- 198,043,720)x4 dn. Genes mapped in the overlapping region among this patient and three other cases described prior to this study were listed and their possible involvement on PMI pathogenesis is discussed. (Source: Genetics and Molecular Biology)


Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae) from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin
Abstract Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3) in populations from the Amazonas river (white water), the Negro river (black water) and the Tapajós river (clear water), in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics) in all th...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil
Abstract Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from ...


Genetic analysis of reciprocal differences in the inheritance of in vitro characters in pearl millet
In this report, we estimate the cytoplasmic and maternal effects in pearl millet and their adequacy in describing the observed reciprocal differences based on an in depth study of the parents, F2s and reciprocal backcross progenies needed for fitting genetical models. Our study revealed that of the two characters examined, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency, the former showed a greater proportion of cytoplasmic nuclear interaction whereas the latter showed a greater role of nuclear factors. Additive-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity and dominance-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency. Dwarfing was associated with the production of large quantities of embryogenic callus that had visually ...


The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass
Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae) is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japon...


Identification and characterization of MAGO and Y14 genes in Hevea brasiliensis
In this study, we identified two MAGO (designated as HbMAGO1 andHbMAGO2) and two Y14 (designated as HbY14aand HbY14b) genes in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) genome annotation. Multiple amino acid sequence alignments predicted that HbMAGO and HbY14 proteins are structurally similar to homologous proteins from other species. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that HbMAGO and HbY14 genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues (bark, flower, latex, leaf and root) examined. HbMAGOs and HbY14s were predominately located in the nucleus and were found to interact in yeast two-hybrid analysis (YTH) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. HbMAGOs and HbY14s showed the highest transcription in latex and were regulated by ethylene and jasmonate. Interaction be...


Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers
Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordin...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits
The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Associati...


Functional abilities of cultivable plant growth promoting bacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops
In this study, a collection of cultivable putative plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with wheat crops was obtained and this bacterial sample was characterized in relation to the functional diversity of certain PGP features. The isolates were obtained through classical cultivation methods, identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and characterized for PGP traits of interest. Functional diversity characterization was performed using Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA) and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The most abundant genera found among the 346 isolates were Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Enterobacter. Occurrence of PGP traits was affected by genus, niche, and sampling site. A large number of genera grouped together with the ability to produce in...


Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo
Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals ...


Human mesenchymal stem cells are resistant to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cisplatin in vitro
Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known for their important properties involving multilineage differentiation potential., trophic factor secretion and localization along various organs and tissues. On the dark side, MSCs play a distinguished role in tumor microenvironments by differentiating into tumor-associated fibroblasts or supporting tumor growth via distinct mechanisms. Cisplatin (CIS) is a drug widely applied in the treatment of a large number of cancers and is known for its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we assessed the effects of CIS on MSCs and the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3, by MTT and comet assays. Our results demonstrated the resistance of MSCs to cell death and DNA damage induction by CIS, which was not observed when OVCAR-3 ce...


Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae)
Abstract Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae), a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Unraveling the evolutionary scenario of the hobo element in populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in South America using the TPE repeats as markers
Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) are nucleotide sequences found in most studied genomes. These elements are highly diversified and have a large variation in nucleotide structure and mechanisms of transposition. hobo is a member of class II, belonging to hAT superfamily, described inDrosophila melanogaster, and it presents in its Open Reading Frame, a repetitive region encoding the amino acids threonine-proline-glutamic acid (TPE), which shows variability in the number of repeats in some regions of the world. Due to this variability some evolutionary scenarios of the hobo element are discussed, such as the scenario of the invasion of hobo element in populations ofD. melanogaster. In the present study, we investigated 22 DNA sequences of D. melanogaster and seven sequences ofD. simulans,...


Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 cou...


‘Fitbit for your period’: the rise of fertility tracking | Moira Weigel
Investors are pouring money into apps that allow women to track their fertility. Can tech companies use data to change the world of women’s reproductive health?Will Sacks did not plan to go into the menstruation business. When he travelled from Toronto to Reno to attend his first Burning Man festival in August 2009, he only knew that he needed a change. At the age of 29, he was having a personal crisis. “I had forgotten that I wanted to be an entrepreneur,” he told me earlier this year. “I had forgotten that I wanted to create a company that could put a dent in the universe.” He quit his job as an energy efficiency consultant, shut down the small online business he had been running on the side, and booked a plane ticket to the desert.Before beginning the drive to Burning Man from...


Early-morning fisticuffs for March hares
Caistor St Edmund, Norfolk Boxing hares were once thought to be males competing for females, but it is usually a female defending herself from an amorous maleIt’s early, the sun has only just risen, yet already I can hear the drone of the bypass a few miles away as the rush hour traffic picks up. Every part of me is alert and awake. I can’t afford to lose focus for a moment for the horse I am on is fresh and quivering with energy.Choosing our way carefully across the&nbsp;tussocky meadow I allow him to pick&nbsp;up into a trot. I breathe in the morning air and then, less than a metre from us, a rich brown, almost reddish, shape breaks for cover. We had all but stumbled on a resting brown hare (Lepus europaeus), crouched low and nearly invisible in its form. It darts off, strong back le...


Fossils discovered in Kenya are neither ape nor man: from the archive, 1962
23 March 1962: Anthropologist Dr Louis Leakey unearths 14 million year old remains Dr Louis Leakey, the British anthropologist, announced in Washington the discovery of fossil remains, estimated to be 14,000,000 years old, which “fill one of the major gaps in man’s evolution.”He said he had unearthed the remains last July on an orange farm in Kenya. They consisted of two halves of the upper palate and a lower tooth of what he described as a creature unique in anthropological discovery. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Modeling to save a rare plant
(American Society of Agronomy) Researchers use satellite imagery and elevation data to better understand where an endangered plant grows, saving time, labor and money. They can also identify potential new habitats. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Modified maggots could help human wound healing
(North Carolina State University) In a proof-of-concept study, NC State University researchers show that genetically engineered green bottle fly larvae can produce and secrete a human growth factor -- a molecule that helps promote cell growth and wound healing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


MSU part of team working to save endangered species in Nicaragua
(Michigan State University) A proposed canal project in Nicaragua that would connect the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean could seriously deplete and disrupt the habitats of a number of animals, including some that are endangered. In an effort to eliminate the damage, a team of researchers, including one from Michigan State University, has developed a conservation plan that, if implemented, could retain the habitat that is crucial for the animals' survival. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Unlocking the secrets of gene expression
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Using cryo-electron microscopy, Berkeley Lab scientist Eva Nogales and her team have made a breakthrough in our understanding of how our molecular machinery finds the right DNA to copy for making proteins, showing with unprecedented detail the role of a powerhouse transcription factor known as TFIID. The study was published this week in Nature. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Microfluidic devices gently rotate small organisms and cells
(Penn State) A method to rotate single particles, cells or organisms using acoustic waves in a microfluidic device will allow researchers to take three dimensional images with only a cell phone. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Cellular 'light switch' analyzed using neutron scattering
(Forschungszentrum Juelich) The internal movements of proteins can be important for their functionality; researchers are discovering more and more examples of this. Now, with the aid of neutron spectroscopy, dynamic processes have also been detected in so-called 'LOV photoreceptors' by scientists from Jülich, Aachen, Dusseldorf and Garching near Munich. These proteins are widely distributed throughout nature and are of biotechnological relevance. The results highlight the immense potential of neutron scattering experiments for the analysis of cellular processes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


A savage world for frogs
(University of Central Florida) UCF biologist Anna Savage is obsessed with frogs and figuring out why they are dying at an unprecedented rate around the world. Her latest research, published today in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, suggests that natural selection as well as other evolutionary forces have shaped the evolution of immune genes in lowland leopard frog populations helping them survive a deadly fungus that's killing off many other species worldwide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


You taste like mercury, said the spider to the fly
(Dartmouth College) More mercury than previously thought is moving from aquatic to land food webs when stream insects are consumed by spiders, a Dartmouth College-led study shows. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Human impact forms 'striking new pattern' in Earth's global energy flow
(University of Leicester) University of Leicester researchers lead Anthropocene study into planet's biological production and consumption. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Green light stops sea turtle deaths
(University of Exeter) Dr Jeffrey Mangel, a Darwin Initiative research fellow based in Peru, and Professor Brendan Godley, from the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University's Penryn Campus, were part of a team of researchers who found that attaching green battery powered light-emitting diodes (LED) to gillnets used by a small-scale fishery reduced the number of green turtle deaths by 64 per cent, without reducing the intended catch of fish. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Wayne State start-up, RetroSense, doses first patient in phase I/II RP clinical trial
(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) A Wayne State University startup company announced today the first successful dosing of a patient in a clinical trial that is a major step forward for patients with vision challenges. RetroSense Therapeutics LLC, a privately held biopharmaceutical company, successfully dosed their first patient in the first clinical trial to evaluate the safety of RST-001. The study is titled 'Phase I/IIa, Open-Label, Dose-Escalation Study of Safety and Tolerability of Uniocular Intravitreal RST-001 in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP).' (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Ectopic pregnancy risk factors for ART patients undergoing the GnRH antagonist protocol: a retrospective study
In-vitro fertilization is a known risk factor for ectopic pregnancies. We sought to establish the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in GnRH antagonist cycles examining patient and stimulation parameters with ... (Source: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology)


Correction: Dosage compensation can buffer copy-number variation in wild yeast
(Source: eLife)


An engineering viewpoint on biological robustness
In his splendid article “Can a biologist fix a radio? — or, what I learned while studying apoptosis,” Y. Lazebnik argues that when one uses the right tools, similarity between a biological system, like a signa... (Source: BMC Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Vertebrate bacterial gut diversity: size also matters
One of the central issues in microbial ecology is to understand the parameters that drive diversity. Among these parameters, size has often been considered to be the main driver in many different ecosystems. S... (Source: BMC Ecology)


Long-term time-lapse live imaging reveals extensive cell migration during annelid regeneration
Time-lapse imaging has proven highly valuable for studying development, yielding data of much finer resolution than traditional “still-shot” studies and allowing direct examination of tissue and cell dynamics.... (Source: BMC Developmental Biology)


The real cost of sequencing: scaling computation to keep pace with data generation
As the cost of sequencing continues to decrease and the amount of sequence data generated grows, new paradigms for data storage and analysis are increasingly important. The relative scaling behavior of these e... (Source: Genome Biology)


Specific expression and function of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) in wild type and knock-out mice
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Advances in Biological Regulation Author(s): Ariane Scoumanne, Patricia Molina-Ortiz, Daniel Monteyne, David Perez-Morga, Christophe Erneux, Stéphane Schurmans Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) is the last identified member of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases family which phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Although expression and function of the two other family members ITPKA and ITPKB are rather well characterized, similar information is lacking for ITPKC. Here, we first defined the expression of Itpkc mRNA and protein in mouse tissues and cells using in situ hybridization and new antibodies. Surprisingly, we found that cells positive for ITPKC in the ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Evaluation of the Dutch implementation of the nitrates directive, the water framework directive and the national emission ceilings directive
We present an evaluation of these policies with respect to target achievement, effectiveness, costs and benefits. Implementation of the Nitrates Directive decreased nutrient surpluses and improved groundwater quality. However, the nitrate target of 50mg/l was still exceeded in groundwater in half of the sand region. Ecological quality of surface waters improved slightly, but this improvement was mainly due to measures for the WFD and not to reduced nutrient losses from agriculture. The NECD reduced emissions of ammonia effectively, but critical loads of nitrogen were still exceeded in the majority of ecosystems. Health benefits of reducing the concentrations of ammonia aerosols were however substantial. Overall, nutrient policies have generated net benefits for Dutch society: Annual costs ...


Laminarin modulates the chloroplast antioxidant system to enhance abiotic stress tolerance partially through the regulation of the defensin-like gene expression
In this study, application of Lam increased Arabidopsis fresh weight and enhanced tolerance to salt and heat stress by stabilizing chloroplast under adverse environment. Transcriptome analysis indicated that, in addition to induced a large number of genes associated with the host defense, genes involved in the regulation of abiotic stress tolerance mostly the heat stress response constituted the largest group of the up-regulated genes. Lam induced expression of IRT1, ZIP8, and copper transporters involved in transport of Fe, Zn, Cu ions associated with the activity of chloroplast antioxidant system. Lam also up-regulated genes involved in the synthesis of terpenoid, a plastidial-derived secondary metabolite with antioxidant activity. Overexpression of a Lam-induced defensin like 202 (DEFL2...


Disturbance as habitat fragmentation
Dispersal fundamentally influences spatial population dynamics but little is known about dispersal variation in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is generated predominantly by disturbance and succession. We tested the hypothesis that habitat succession following fire inhibits dispersal, leading to declines over time in genetic diversity in the early successional gecko Nephrurus stellatus. We combined a landscape genetics field study with a spatially explicit simulation experiment to determine whether successional patterns in genetic diversity were driven by habitat-mediated dispersal or demographic effects (declines in population density leading to genetic drift). Initial increases in genetic structure following fire were likely driven by direct mortality and rapid population expansio...


Macroevolution and plant coexistence
Evolutionary biologists since Darwin have hypothesized that closely related species compete more intensely and are therefore less likely to coexist. However, recent theory posits that species diverge in two ways: either through the evolution of &lsquo;stabilizing differences&rsquo; that promote coexistence by causing individuals to compete more strongly with conspecifics than individuals of other species, or through the evolution of &lsquo;fitness differences&rsquo; that cause species to differ in competitive ability and lead to exclusion of the weaker competitor. We tested macroevolutionary patterns of divergence by competing pairs of annual plant species that differ in their phylogenetic relationships, and in whether they have historically occurred in the same region or different regions...


Number representations in crows
This study helps to resolve a classical debate in psychophysics: the mental number line seems to be logarithmic rather than linear, and not just in primates, but across vertebrates. (Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences)


Root herbivores shape defence chemistry
Plants display extensive intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites. However, the selective forces shaping this diversity remain often unknown, especially below ground. Using Taraxacum officinale and its major native insect root herbivore Melolontha melolontha, we tested whether below-ground herbivores drive intraspecific variation in root secondary metabolites. We found that high M. melolontha infestation levels over recent decades are associated with high concentrations of major root latex secondary metabolites across 21 central European T. officinale field populations. By cultivating offspring of these populations, we show that both heritable variation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to the observed differences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the production of the sesquiter...


Virulence-specific cell cycle and morphogenesis connections in pathogenic fungi
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell &amp; Developmental Biology Author(s): José Pérez-Martín, Paola Bardetti, Sónia Castanheira, Antonio de la Torre, María Tenorio-Gómez To initiate pathogenic development, pathogenic fungi respond to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of an extracellular nature (environmental signals), while others are intracellular (developmental signals). These signals must be integrated into a single response whose major outcome is changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The regulation of the cell cycle is pivotal during these cellular differentiation steps; therefore, cell cycle regulation would likely provide control points for infectious development by fungal pathogens. Here, we provide clues to underst...


Non-invasive and label-free detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using saliva surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine Author(s): Jennifer M. Connolly, Karen Davies, Agne Kazakeviciute, Antony M. Wheatley, Peter Dockery, Ivan Keogh, Malini Olivo Reported here is the application of silver nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a label-free, non-invasive technique for detection of oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) using saliva and desquamated oral cells. A total of 180 SERS spectra were acquired from saliva and 120 SERS spectra from oral cells collected from normal healthy individuals and from confirmed oropharyngeal cancer patients. Notable biochemical peaks in the SERS spectra were tentatively assigned to various components. Data were subjected to multivariate statist...


Liposomal prednisolone promotes macrophage lipotoxicity in experimental atherosclerosis
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine Author(s): Fleur M. van der Valk, Dominik M. Schulte, Svenja Meiler, Jun Tang, Kang He Zheng, Jan Van den Bossche, Tom Seijkens, Matthias Laudes, Menno de Winther, Esther Lutgens, Amr Alaarg, Josbert M. Metselaar, Geesje M. Dallinga-Thie, Willem J.M. Mulder, Erik S.G. Stroes, Anouk A.J. Hamers Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven inflammatory disease, for which nanomedicinal interventions are under evaluation. Previously, we showed that liposomal nanoparticles loaded with prednisolone (LN-PLP) accumulated in plaque macrophages, however, induced proatherogenic effects in patients. Here, we confirmed in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr −/−) mice that LN...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Smart Polymers with Special Wettability
Surface wettability plays a key role in addressing issues ranging from basic life activities to our daily life, and thus being able to control it is an attractive goal. Learning from nature, both of its structure and function, brings us much inspiration in designing smart polymers to tackle this major challenge. Life functions particularly depend on biomolecular recognition‐induced interfacial properties from the aqueous phase onto either “soft” cell and tissue or “hard” inorganic bone and tooth surfaces. The driving force is noncovalent weak interactions rather than strong covalent combinations. An overview is provided of the weak interactions that perform vital actions in mediating biological processes, which serve as a basis for elaborating multi‐component polymers with spec...


Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways
In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced th...


Role of dietary bioactive natural products in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Min Ji Bak, Soumyasri Das Gupta, Joseph Wahler, Nanjoo Suh Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, including luminal-A and −B, is the most common type of breast cancer. Extended exposure to estrogen is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Both ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms have been implicated in estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. The ER-dependent pathway involves cell growth and proliferation triggered by the binding of estrogen to the ER. The ER-independent mechanisms depend on the metabolism of estrogen to generate genotoxic metabolites, free radicals and reactive oxygen species to induce breast cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms that driv...


DNA Double-Strand-Break Repair in Higher Eukaryotes and its Role in Genomic Instability and Cancer: Cell Cycle and Proliferation-Dependent Regulation
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Emil Mladenov, Simon Magin, Aashish Soni, George Iliakis Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by activating a comprehensive network of biochemical pathways that enable damage recognition and initiate responses leading to repair, apoptosis/autophagy or senescence. This network of responses is commonly described as the “DNA damage response” (DDR). Among the plethora of lesions generated in the DNA from various physical and chemical agents in the environment and in the cell, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA replication stress (RS) are the most severe and induce strong DDR, as they bear high risk for cell death, or genomic alterations ultimately causing cancer. Here, we focus on DSB...


Cancers, Vol. 8, Pages 39: NORE1A Regulates MDM2 Via β-TrCP
Mouse Double Minute 2 Homolog (MDM2) is a key negative regulator of the master tumor suppressor p53. MDM2 regulates p53 on multiple levels, including acting as an ubiquitin ligase for the protein, thereby promoting its degradation by the proteasome. MDM2 is oncogenic and is frequently found to be over-expressed in human tumors, suggesting its dysregulation plays an important role in human cancers. We have recently found that the Ras effector and RASSF (Ras Association Domain Family) family member RASSF5/NORE1A enhances the levels of nuclear p53. We have also found that NORE1A (Novel Ras Effector 1A) binds the substrate recognition component of the SCF-ubiquitin ligase complex β-TrCP. Here, we now show that NORE1A regulates MDM2 protein levels by targeting it for ubiquitination by SCF-β-T...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Characterization of drug authenticity using thin-layer chromatography imaging with a mobile phone
Publication date: 5 June 2016 Source:Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 125 Author(s): Hojeong Yu, Huy M. Le, Eliangiringa Kaale, Kenneth. D. Long, Thomas Layloff, Steven S. Lumetta, Brian T. Cunningham Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has a myriad of separation applications in chemistry, biology, and pharmacology due to its simplicity and low cost. While benchtop laboratory sample application and detection systems for TLC provide accurate quantitation of TLC spot positions and densities, there are many applications where inexpensive and portable instruments would greatly expand the applicability of the technology. In this work, we demonstrate identity verification and concentration determination of pharmaceutical compounds via TLC using a custom 3D-printed c...


Reproductive outcomes following cesarean scar pregnancy – a case series and review of the literature
Conclusion Most women were able to conceive following CSPs. Reproductive outcomes included normal intrauterine term pregnancy, miscarriage, recurrent CSP, and infertility. Placenta accreta, which could be misdiagnosed antenatally, was a serious complication in subsequent pregnancies. Diverticulum or defect in the lower uterine segment could happen after CSP. Repair of the uterine defect, following a CSP neither guaranteed the healing of the scar, nor the ability to ensure a safe pregnancy outcome. Appropriate counseling to women desiring fertility with a history of CSP is essential and once they conceive early referral to tertiary centers for follow up is pertinent. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)


Viable pregnancies beyond 28 weeks gestation in women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage have reduced platelet function
Conclusion This study shows that women with a history of unexplained RM have reduced platelet function after 28 weeks’ gestation in their subsequent pregnancies compared to healthy pregnant controls, but without this difference leading to any obvious increase in adverse obstetric risk. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)


Initial clinical experience with a misoprostol vaginal insert in comparison with a dinoprostone insert for inducing labor
Conclusions The groups thus had similar results for rates of vaginal delivery within 24h, cesarean delivery and fetal outcomes. The misoprostol group had lower modified Bishop scores, higher BMIs, and a higher rate of fetal scalp blood testing. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)


Association of adiponectin and resistin gene polymorphisms in South Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome
Conclusions Polymorphisms of the resistin gene could be assigned to play a role in increasing the risk of PCOS. However, the adiponectin gene does not seem to play a major role in PCOS susceptibility in a South Indian population. Serum adiponectin and resistin levels were more dependent on BMI rather than the presentation of PCOS. Obesity plays a major role in aggravating the hormonal disturbances found associated with PCOS. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


How Can Advanced Imaging Be Used to Mitigate Potential Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis?
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Academic Radiology Author(s): Habib Rahbar, Elizabeth S. McDonald, Janie M. Lee, Savannah C. Partridge, Christoph I. Lee Radiologists, as administrators and interpreters of screening mammography, are considered by some to be major contributors to the potential harms of screening, including overdiagnosis and overtreatment. In this article, we outline current efforts within the breast imaging community toward mitigating screening harms, including the widespread adoption of tomosynthesis and potentially adjusting screening frequency and thresholds for image-guided breast biopsy. However, the emerging field of breast radiomics may offer the greatest promise for reducing overdiagnosis by identifying imaging-based biomarkers strongly...


Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) hyperthermia for recurrent rectal cancer: MR thermometry evaluation and preclinical validation
This study demonstrates the feasibility of delivering hyperthermia to pelvic targets using MR-HIFU. Sonications in normal pig muscle validated hyperthermia delivery in locations representing rectal recurrences using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Prospective imaging in volunteers with rectal cancer identified criteria for patient selection and preparation to achieve adequate targeting depth and MR thermometry stability. These results enable human trials of MR-HIFU hyperthermia. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


Robust intra-tumor partitioning to identify high-risk subregions in lung cancer: a pilot study
We developed a robust, intra-tumor partitioning framework to identify clinically relevant, high-risk subregions by integrating FDG-PET and CT images. In a population of 44 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, three different types of tumor subregions emerged, each with distinct imaging phenotypes. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor predicted overall survival and out-of-field failure in NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


PET Imaging of Skeletal Metastases and Its Role in Personalizing Further Management
In oncology, the skeleton is one of the most frequently encountered sites for metastatic disease and thus early detection not only has an impact on an individual patient’s management but also on the overall outcome. Multiparametric and multimodal hybrid PET/computed tomography and PET/MR imaging have revolutionized imaging for bone metastases, but irrespective of tumor biology or morphology of the bone lesion it remains unclear which imaging modality is the most clinically relevant to guide individualized cancer care. In this review, we highlight the current clinical challenges of PET imaging in evaluation and quantification of skeletal tumor burden and its impact on personalized cancer management. (Source: PET Clinics)


Issue Cover (April 2016)
Cover legend: This issue presents the first set of reviews honoring the contributions of Ari Helenius and his colleagues to the Trafficking field. Alfred containing Ari Helenius' activities (virus, membrane, ER, folded and unfolded proteins, …). Ari Helenius' work on viruses led him to dissect the biology of host cells, allowing him to deeply describe membranes, trafficking, protein folding and quality control. As stated in ASCB Profile by John Fleischman “Along with a grudging admiration for viruses, departing students and research fellows leave the Helenius lab with a foot‐tall plastic garden gnome, a garishly painted figurine with a pointy hat and dopey expression. Helenius calls his gnomes “Alfreds,” in honor of Alfred Nobel, and carefully numbers and engraves each one himsel...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Cancer biology: Cancer cells get care packages
Nature 531, 7595 (2016). doi:10.1038/531417c Healthy cells that surround a tumour supply it with metabolites that support the voracious appetite of cancer cells &#8212; and could one day be targeted by therapeutics.Cells can swap molecules by producing membrane-bound sacs called exosomes, which act as shuttles between cells. Deepak Nagrath (Source: Nature)


Molecular biology: Breaks in the brain
Nature advance online publication 23 March 2016. doi:10.1038/nature17316 Authors: Thomas W. Glover & Thomas E. Wilson A high-throughput approach has found clusters of DNA double-strand breaks in neural cells. Most of the clusters are in large genes that are associated with neural function, which suggests that the breaks may have tissue-specific roles. (Source: Nature AOP)


Cell biology: Calcium contradictions in cilia
Nature advance online publication 23 March 2016. doi:10.1038/nature17313 Authors: Dominic P. Norris & Peter K. Jackson Organelles called primary cilia that protrude from cells have been thought to sense the surrounding environment through calcium-channel proteins that respond to force. Two scientists discuss the implications for developmental biology and kidney disease of a study that challenges this hypothesis. (Source: Nature AOP)


Nineteen-step total synthesis of (+)-phorbol
Nature advance online publication 23 March 2016. doi:10.1038/nature17153 Authors: Shuhei Kawamura, Hang Chu, Jakob Felding & Phil S. Baran Phorbol, the flagship member of the tigliane diterpene family, has been known for over 80 years and has attracted attention from many chemists and biologists owing to its intriguing chemical structure and the medicinal potential of phorbol esters. Access to useful quantities of phorbol and related analogues has relied on isolation from natural sources and semisynthesis. Despite efforts spanning 40 years, chemical synthesis has been unable to compete with these strategies, owing to its complexity and unusual placement of oxygen atoms. Purely synthetic enantiopure phorbol has remained elusive, and biological synthesis has not led to even the simplest...


Cell Biology/Immunology 1 Oral Presentations
(Source: Respirology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Cell Biology/Immunology 2 Oral Presentations
(Source: Respirology)


Cell Biology / Immunology SIG Poster Presentations
(Source: Respirology)


Global warming awareness among the University of Bahrain science students
This study was designed to investigate the awareness regarding global warming among the College of Science students at University of Bahrain. A total of 143 science students were examined using a questionnaire that covered three aspects of global warming including causes, impacts, and solutions. The study included 51, 28, 40 and 24 students from the departments of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics respectively. The results have shown that 55±10.18% of all students examined answered the questions correctly of which 51±10.28% were in the first year, while 60±7.4% were in their fourth year indicating a direct positive impact of university education. A significant dependence (p ⩽0.05) was recorded between first and fourth year students’ answers. The results have shown that fo...


Evidence of the direct adsorption of mercury in human hair during occupational exposure to mercury vapour.
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology Author(s): Silvia Queipo Abad, Pablo Rodríguez-González, J.Ignacio Garcia lonso We have found clear evidence of direct adsorption of mercury in human hair after the occupational exposure to mercury vapour. We have performed both longitudinal analysis of human hair by Laser Ablation ICP-MS and speciation analysis by Gas Chromatography ICP-MS in single hair strands of 5 individuals which were occupationally exposed to high levels of mercury vapour and showed acute mercury poisoning symptoms. Hair samples, between 3.5 and 11cm long depending on the individual, were taken ca. three months after exposure. Single point laser ablation samples of 50μm diameter were taken at 1mm interva...


Levels of L-ascorbic Acid and Cadmium in the Saphenous Vein of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease are Negatively Correlated
Conclusions Negative correlations among concentrations of AA and cadmium in human SV obtained in our study may indicate a protective effect of this vitamin in relation to toxic cadmium. (Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Vitamin d production in uk caucasian and south asian women following uvr exposure
Conclusions This study have found no ethnic differences in the synthesis of 25(OH)D, possibly due to the baseline differences in 25(OH)D concentration or due to the small population size used in this study. Applying mixed linear model, findings indicated no effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of vitamin D; baseline level and length of exposure were the critical factors. To confirm that ethnicity and skin tone has no effect on 25(OH)D production, a larger sample size study is required that considers other ethnic groups with highly pigmented skin. Initial vitamin D status influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations. (Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)


Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity
by Tadeo E. Saldaño, Alexander M. Monzon, Gustavo Parisi, Sebastian Fernandez-Alberti Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand bin...


Demographic and genetic connectivity: the role and consequences of reproduction, dispersal and recruitment in seagrasses
ABSTRACT Accurate estimation of connectivity among populations is fundamental for determining the drivers of population resilience, genetic diversity, adaptation and speciation. However the separation and quantification of contemporary versus historical connectivity remains a major challenge. This review focuses on marine angiosperms, seagrasses, that are fundamental to the health and productivity of temperate and tropical coastal marine environments globally. Our objective is to understand better the role of sexual reproduction and recruitment in influencing demographic and genetic connectivity among seagrass populations through an integrated multidisciplinary assessment of our present ecological, genetic, and demographic understanding, with hydrodynamic modelling of transport. We investi...


Alignment Algorithms and Per-Particle CTF Correction for Single Particle Cryo-Electron Tomography
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Structural Biology Author(s): Jesús G. Galaz-Montoya, Corey W. Hecksel, Philip R. Baldwin, Eryu Wang, Scott C. Weaver, Michael F. Schmid, Steven J. Ludtke, Wah Chiu Single particle cryo-electron tomography (cryoSPT) extracts features from cryo-electron tomograms, followed by 3D classification, alignment and averaging to generate improved 3D density maps of such features. Robust methods to correct for the contrast transfer function (CTF) of the electron microscope are necessary for cryoSPT to reach its resolution potential. Many factors can make CTF correction for cryoSPT challenging, such as lack of eucentricity of the specimen stage, inherent low dose per image, specimen charging, beam-induced specimen motions, ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Crystal structure and functional analysis of isocitrate lyases from Magnaporthe oryzae and Fusarium graminearum
In this study we report the crystal structure of Magnaporthe oryzae ICL in both the ligand-free form and as a complex with Mg2+, glyoxylate, and glycerol, as well as the structure of the Fusarium graminearum ICL complexed with Mn2+ and malonate. We also describe the ligand-induced conformational changes in the catalytic loop and C-terminal region, both of which are essential for catalysis. Using various mutant ICLs in an activity assay, we gained insight into the function of residues within the active site. These structural and functional analyses provide detailed information with regard to fungal ICLs. (Source: Journal of Structural Biology)


Supramolecular organization of the human N-BAR domain in shaping the sarcolemma membrane
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Structural Biology Author(s): Bertram Daum, Andrea Auerswald, Tobias Gruber, Gerd Hause, Jochen Balbach, Werner Kühlbrandt, Annette Meister The 30 kDa N-BAR domain of the human Bin1 protein is essential for the generation of skeletal muscle T-tubules. By electron cryo-microscopy and electron cryo-tomography with a direct electron detector, we found that Bin1-N-BAR domains assemble into scaffolds of low long-range order that form flexible membrane tubules. The diameter of the tubules closely matches the curved shape of the N-BAR domain, which depends on the composition of the target membrane. These insights are fundamental to our understanding of T-tubule formation and function in human skeletal muscle. (Source: Jo...


One of the possible mechanisms of amyloid fibrils formation based on the sizes of primary and secondary folding nuclei of Aβ40 and Aβ42
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Structural Biology Author(s): Nikita V. Dovidchenko, Anna V. Glyakina, Olga M. Selivanova, Elizaveta I. Grigorashvili, Mariya Yu. Suvorina, Ulyana F. Dzhus, Alisa O. Mikhailina, Nikita G. Shiliaev, Victor V. Marchenkov, Alexey K. Surin, Oxana V. Galzitskaya In the presented paper, theoretical as well as electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction experimental approaches were employed for studding the process of Aβ amyloid formation. Using quantitative estimates of a number of monomers which form the nuclei of amyloid fibrils the sizes of folding nuclei of amyloid fibrils for Aβ40 and 42 have been determined for the first time. We have shown that the size of the primary nucleus of Aβ42 peptide fibrils correspon...


Improving the microbial community reconstruction at the genus level by multiple 16S rRNA regions
Conclusions Therefore, using multiple 16S rRNA regions rather than one “universal” region can significantly improve the ability of microbial community reconstruction. In addition, we found that a short fragment is suitable for most genera identifications, and the proper conserved regions used for primer design are larger than before. (Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology)


Greedy adaptive walks on a correlated fitness landscape
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Su-Chan Park, Johannes Neidhart, Joachim Krug We study adaptation of a haploid asexual population on a fitness landscape defined over binary genotype sequences of length L. We consider greedy adaptive walks in which the population moves to the fittest among all single mutant neighbors of the current genotype until a local fitness maximum is reached. The landscape is of the rough mount Fuji type, which means that the fitness value assigned to a sequence is the sum of a random and a deterministic component. The random components are independent and identically distributed random variables, and the deterministic component varies linearly with the distance to a reference sequence. The deterministic ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


The dual effect of ephaptic coupling on cardiac conduction with heterogeneous expression of connexin 43
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Ning Wei, Yoichiro Mori, Elena G. Tolkacheva Decreased and heterogeneous expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) are common features in animal heart failure models. Ephpatic coupling, which relies on the presence of junctional cleft space between the ends of adjacent cells, has been suggested to play a more active role in mediating intercellular electrical communication when gap junctions are reduced. To better understand the interplay of Cx43 expression and ephaptic coupling on cardiac conduction during heart failure, we performed numerical simulations on our model when Cx43 expression is reduced and heterogeneous. Under severely reduced Cx43 expression, we identified three new phenomena in the presen...


The ribosome as a missing link in prebiotic evolution II: Ribosomes encode ribosomal proteins that bind to common regions of their own mRNAs and rRNAs
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Robert Root-Bernstein, Meredith Root-Bernstein We have proposed that the ribosome may represent a missing link between prebiotic chemistries and the first cells. One of the predictions that follows from this hypothesis, which we test here, is that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) must have encoded the proteins necessary for ribosomal function. In other words, the rRNA also functioned pre-biotically as mRNA. Since these ribosome-binding proteins (rb-proteins) must bind to the rRNA, but the rRNA also functioned as mRNA, it follows that rb-proteins should bind to their own mRNA as well. This hypothesis can be contrasted to a “null” hypothesis in which rb-proteins evolved independently of the rRNA sequences ...


Predicting catastrophic shifts
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Haim Weissmann, Nadav M. Shnerb Catastrophic shifts are known to pose a serious threat to ecology, and a reliable set of early warning indicators is desperately needed. However, the tools suggested so far have two problems. First, they cannot discriminate between a smooth transition and an imminent irreversible shift. Second, they aimed at predicting the tipping point where a state loses its stability, but in noisy spatial system the actual transition occurs when an alternative state invades. Here we suggest a cluster tracking technique that solves both problems, distinguishing between smooth and catastrophic transitions and to identify an imminent shift in both cases. Our method may allow for th...


Inhibitory and excitatory networks balance cell coupling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus: A modeling approach
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Nathaniel J. Kingsbury, Stephanie R. Taylor, Michael A. Henson Neuronal coupling contributes to circadian rhythms formation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). While the neurotransmitter vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is considered essential for synchronizing the oscillations of individual neurons, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) does not have a clear functional role despite being highly concentrated in the SCN. While most studies have examined the role of either GABA or VIP, our mathematical modeling approach explored their interplay on networks of SCN neurons. Tuning the parameters that control the release of GABA and VIP enabled us to optimize network synchrony, which was achieved at a...


Predicting lysine phosphoglycerylation with fuzzy SVM by incorporating k-spaced amino acid pairs into Chou׳s general PseAAC
In this study, a novel predictor named CKSAAP_PhoglySite is developed to predict phosphoglycerylation sites by using composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs and fuzzy support vector machine. On the one hand, after many aspects of assessments, we find the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs is more suitable for representing the protein sequence around the phosphoglycerylation sites than other encoding schemes. On the other hand, the proposed fuzzy support vector machine algorithm can effectively handle the imbalanced and noisy problem in phosphoglycerylation sites training dataset. Experimental results indicate that CKSAAP_PhoglySite outperforms the existing phosphoglycerylation site predictor Phogly-PseAAC significantly. A matlab software package for CKSAAP_PhoglySite can be freely d...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Hamilton׳s Rule in finite populations with synergistic interactions
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Peter Taylor Much debate has appeared in the literature over the generality of the inclusive fitness approach in the modeling of evolutionary behavior. Here I focus on the capacity of the inclusive fitness approach to effectively handle non-additive or synergistic interactions. I work with a binary interaction with the matrix game [ a b c d ] and I restrict attention to transitive (homogeneous) populations with weak selective effects. First of all I observe that the construction of “higher-order” relatedness coefficients permits these synergistic interactions to be analyzed with an inclusive fitness analysis. These coefficients are an immediate generalization of Hamilton׳s original ...


Competence of hosts and complex foraging behavior are two cornerstones in the dynamics of trophically transmitted parasites
This study examines the foraging condition for the co-existence of the prey, and then, based on the computation of the threshold measure of disease risk, R 0 , we show that the pattern of feeding interactions changes the relationship between disease risk and prey community composition. Finally, we disentangle the mechanism leading to the counter-intuitive observation of a decrease of disease risk while the population density of intermediate hosts increases. (Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology)


Disease and disaster: Optimal deployment of epidemic control facilities in a spatially heterogeneous population with changing behaviour
Publication date: 21 May 2016 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 397 Author(s): Katy Gaythorpe, Ben Adams Epidemics of water-borne infections often follow natural disasters and extreme weather events that disrupt water management processes. The impact of such epidemics may be reduced by deployment of transmission control facilities such as clinics or decontamination plants. Here we use a relatively simple mathematical model to examine how demographic and environmental heterogeneities, population behaviour, and behavioural change in response to the provision of facilities, combine to determine the optimal configurations of limited numbers of facilities to reduce epidemic size, and endemic prevalence. We show that, if the presence of control facilities does not affect behaviou...


Interplay between insecticide-treated bed-nets and mosquito demography: implications for malaria control
We present a model for malaria dynamics that incorporates these factors, and a systematic analysis, including stability and sensitivity analyses of the model under different conditions. The model with constant ITN-efficacy exhibits a backward bifurcation emphasizing the need for sustained control measures until the basic reproduction number, R 0, drops below a critical value at which control is feasible. The infectious and partially immune human populations and R 0 are highly sensitive to the probability that a mosquito feeds successfully on a human, ITN coverage and the maximum biting rate of mosquitoes, irrespective of whether ITN-efficacy is constant or declines over time. This implies that ITNs play an important role in disease control. When ITN-efficacy wanes over time, we identify di...


Role of low-level laser therapy on the cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction: A systematic review of experimental studies
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Fernando Pereira Carlos, Vanessa Gradinetti, Martha Manchini, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, José Antonio Silva, Adriana Castello Costa Girardi, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior, Danilo Sales Bocalini, Stella Vieira, Ednei Luiz Antonio, Paulo Tucci, Andrey Jorge Serra Aims We systematically reviewed the role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. Main methods Literatures were systematically searched in several electronic databases. We included only studies with a well-standardized coronary occlusion model in vivo LLLT application. Key findings After screening, 14 studies were eligible for review. The study heterogeneity was described in terms of rat...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


MicroRNA-206, let-7a and microRNA-21 pathways involved in the anti-angiogenesis effects of the interval exercise training and hormone therapy in breast cancer
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Amin Isanejad, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari, Hamid Khodayari, Saeed Khodayari, Vahid Khori, Najmeh Khojastehnjad Aims MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the targeting signal-transduction pathways that can mediate tumorigenesis via their down and/or up-regulation. For example, miR-21 and miR-206 can effect on the tumor angiogenesis as an oncomir and a tumor suppressor, respectively. Materials and methods The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of the interval exercise training in combination with tamoxifen and/or letrozole on miR-21, miR-206 and let-7 as well as their underlying pathways in regard to tumor angiogenesis in sixty four mice with breast tumor. ELISA, immunohistochemistry, q...


Deficit of RACK1 contributes to the spatial memory impairment via upregulating BECLIN1 to induce autophagy
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Jiejun Zhu, Xu Chen, Yun Song, Yuanyuan Zhang, Liming Zhou, Lihong Wan Aims Deficiency of activated C kinase1 (RACK1) in the brain of aging animal and Alzheimer's disease was characterized by cognitive dementia and spatial memory impairment. However, the correlation between the RACK1 and spatial memory impairment and the mechanism involved in it remains unknown. Main methods Spatial memory impairment was performed in mice by lateral ventricle injection of Aβ25–35 (n =16, 10μl) and intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (n =16, 10ml/kg). After the Morris water maze (MWM) which was performed to determine the ability of learning and memory in mice, expression of RACK1 was tested and the damage of hippoc...


Metabolic status of patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease: In vitro, high resolution NMR spectroscopy based metabolomics analysis of serum
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Niraj Kumar Srivastava, Sanjay Annarao, Neeraj Sinha Aims Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) based metabolomics analysis is extensively used to explore the metabolic profiling of biofluids. This approach was used for the analysis of metabolites in serum of patients with major types of muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease. Material and methods Proton NMR spectroscopy based qualitative (assignment of metabolites) and quantitative (quantification of metabolites) analysis of metabolites in native serum of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) [n=88; n represent the number], Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) [n=40], facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) [n=22], limb girdle muscular dystroph...


Impaired renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase and reticulocyte production as modulators of hypertension induced by rHuEPO in the rat
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Sandra Ribeiro, Patrícia Garrido, João Fernandes, Helena Vala, Petronila Rocha-Pereira, Elísio Costa, Luís Belo, Flávio Reis, Alice Santos-Silva Our aim was to study the effect of a broad range of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) doses on hematological and biochemical parameters, blood pressure (BP), renal function and damage in the rat, focusing on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Male Wistar rats were divided in 5 groups receiving different doses of rHuEPO (100, 200, 400 and 600IU/kg body weight (BW)/week) and saline solution (control), during 3weeks. Blood and 24h urine were collected to perform hematological and biochemical analysis. BP was ...


Effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 on cough hypersensitivity induced by particulate matter 2.5
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Haining Lv, Jianliang Yue, Zhe Chen, Senlin Chai, Xu Cao, Jie Zhan, Zhenjun Ji, Hui Zhang, Rong Dong, Kefang Lai Aims The mechanism of cough hypersensitivity induced by particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) remains elusive. The current study was designed to explore the effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) on cough hypersensitivity in airway and central nervous system. Main methods The PM2.5-induced chronic cough model of guinea pig was established by exposure to different doses of PM2.5 for three weeks. After exposure, the animals were microinjected with TRPV1 agonist capsaicine, antagonist capsazepine in the dorsal vagal complex respectively. Cough sensitivity was measured by determinin...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


dl-3-n-butylphthalide suppresses PDGF-BB-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation via induction of autophagy
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Haijuan Hu, Bin Liu, Yabei Zuo, Demin Liu, Ruiqin Xie, Wei Cui Aims Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) played an important role in vascular remodeling. dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) was extracted as a pure component from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn (Chinese celery) for protecting neurons activity, but the role of NBP on VSMCs was not clearly clarified. Main methods Cell proliferation was measured by MTS and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy were performed to analyze the relative protein expression and autophagosome. Moreover, the autophagic inhibitor and β-catenin inhibitor were used to evaluate the effects of NBP on autophagy and the function of β-catenin on c...


Stabilization of HIF-1α modulates VEGF and Caspase-3 in the hippocampus of rats following transient global ischemia induced by asphyxial cardiac arrest
In this study, we examined protein expression of subtype HIF-1α and its downstream product, namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the rat hippocampus after transient global ischemia induced by asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We also examined the effects of stabilization of HIF-1α by systemic administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) and ML228 on expression of VEGF receptor subtype 2 (VEGFR-2), Caspase-3 and NF-kB in the hippocampus. Main methods Ninety-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The animals surviving from CPR were sacrificed 0, 3, 6 and 24h following CPR and the protein levels of HIF-1α and VEGF in the hippocampus were determined. VEGFR-2, Caspase-3 and NF-kB were also examined in control rats...


Preconditioning at a distance: Involvement of endothelial vasoactive substances in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Sapna Aggarwal, Puneet Kaur Randhawa, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi There is growing preclinical as well as clinical evidence supporting remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), in which short cycles of non-fatal ischemia followed by reperfusion to an organ or tissue distant from the heart elicits cardioprotection. It is the most practical, non-invasive, cost-free, and clinically compatible, secure procedure for reducing ischemia-reperfusion induced injury. The use of a conventional blood pressure cuff on the upper or lower limb in eliciting cardioprotection has expedited its clinical applicability. Endothelium has been documented to respond very quickly to blood flow and hypoxia by releasing different h...


Effect of retinoic acid on human adrenal corticosteroid synthesis
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Antonella Sesta, Maria Francesca Cassarino, Laura Tapella, Luigi Castelli, Francesco Cavagnini, Francesca Pecori Giraldi Aims Retinoic acid has recently yielded promising results in the treatment of Cushing's disease, i.e., excess cortisol secretion due to a pituitary corticotropin (ACTH)-secreting adenoma. In addition to its effect on the tumoral corticotrope cell, clinical results suggest an additional adrenal site of action. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether retinoic acid modulates cortisol synthesis and secretion by human adrenals in vitro. Main methods Primary cultures from 10 human adrenals specimens were incubated with 10nM, 100nM and 1μM retinoic acid with and without 10nM ACTH for 24h. Co...


Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of pneumocytes under exposure to a carcinogenic dose of chloroprene
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Yinghua Guo, Yonghua Xing Aims Occupational exposure to chloroprene via inhalation may lead to acute toxicity and chronic pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer. Currently, most research is focused on epidemiological studies of chloroprene production workers. The specific molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis by chloroprene in lung tissues still remains obscure, and specific candidate therapeutic targets for lung cancer are lacking. The present study identifies specific gene modules and valuable hubs associated with lung cancer. Main methods We downloaded the dataset GSE40795 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and divided the dataset into the non-carcinogenic dose chloroprene exposed mice group and the ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Loss of the LIM-only protein Fhl2 impairs inflammatory reaction and scar formation after cardiac ischemia leading to better hemodynamic performance
Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 151 Author(s): Diane Goltz, Kanishka Hittetiya, Heidrun Gevensleben, Jutta Kirfel, Linda Diehl, Rainer Meyer, Reinhard Büttner Aims The pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MI/R) involves an inflammatory response. Since the four-and-a-half LIM domain-containing protein 2 (Fhl2) has been observed to modulate immune cell migration, we aimed to study the consequences of Fhl2−/− under MI/R with respect to immune reaction, scar formation, and hemodynamic performance. Material and methods In a closed chest model of 1h MI/R, immune cell invasion of phagocytic monocytes was characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In addition, infarct size was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride/Ma...


Holocene mammal extinctions in Europe
The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18 700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11 700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for 15 large-bodied mammal species. European mammals experienced protracted, non-congruent range losses, with significant declines starting in some species approximately 3000 years ago and continuing to the present, and with the timing, duration and magnitude of declines varying individually between species. Some European mammals became globally extinct during the Holocene, whereas others experienced limited or no significant range change. These fin...


Social learning in nest-building birds
We presented first-time nest-building male zebra finches with either a familiar or an unfamiliar conspecific male building with material of a colour the observer did not like. When given the opportunity to build, males that had watched a familiar male build switched their material preference to that used by the familiar male. Males that observed unfamiliar birds did not. Thus, first-time nest builders use social information and copy the nest material choices when demonstrators are familiar but not when they are strangers. The relationships between individuals therefore influence how nest-building expertise is socially transmitted in zebra finches. (Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences)


Social brains in ground squirrels
The social brain hypothesis (SBH) contends that cognitive demands associated with living in cohesive social groups favour the evolution of large brains. Although the correlation between relative brain size and sociality reported in various groups of birds and mammals provides broad empirical support for this hypothesis, it has never been tested in rodents, the largest mammalian order. Here, we test the predictions of the SBH in the ground squirrels from the tribe Marmotini. These rodents exhibit levels of sociality ranging from solitary and single-family female kin groups to egalitarian polygynous harems but feature similar ecologies and life-history traits. We found little support for the association between increase in sociality and increase in relative brain size. Thus, sociality does n...


Mixture model of pottery decorations
We present a new statistical approach to analysing an extremely common archaeological data type&mdash;potsherds&mdash;that infers the structure of cultural relationships across a set of excavation units (EUs). This method, applied to data from a set of complex, culturally heterogeneous sites around the Mandara mountains in the Lake Chad Basin, helps elucidate cultural succession through the Neolithic and Iron Age. We show how the approach can be integrated with radiocarbon dates to provide detailed portraits of cultural dynamics and deposition patterns within single EUs. In this context, the analysis supports ancient cultural segregation analogous to historical ethnolinguistic patterning in the region. We conclude with a discussion of the many possible model extensions using other archaeol...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Genetically asymmetric Red Queen
Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with...


aggregation in drosophila
This study could help to identify the circumstances under which particular group compositions may improve individual fitness through underlying aggregation mechanisms under specific environmental conditions. (Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences)


Fungal tolerance drives MHC evolution
Amphibians have been affected globally by the disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and we are just now beginning to understand how immunogenetic variability contributes to disease susceptibility. Lineages of an expressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II locus involved in acquired immunity are associated with chytridiomycosis susceptibility in controlled laboratory challenge assays. Here, we extend these findings to natural populations that vary both in exposure and response to Bd. We find that MHC alleles and supertypes associated with Bd survival in the field show a molecular signal of positive selection, while those associated with susceptibility do not, supporting the hypothesis that heritable Bd tolerance is rapidly evolving...


Cryptic female choice in chinook salmon
In this study, we investigated two potentially important intersexual postcopulatory gametic interactions in a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): (i) the effect of female ovarian fluid (OF) on the behaviour of spermatozoa during fertilization and (ii) the effects of multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) (as an index of male quality) and female&ndash;male genetic relatedness on sperm behaviour and male fertilization success when there is sperm competition in the presence of that OF. To do this, we conducted a series of in vitro competitive fertilization experiments and found that, when ejaculates from two males are competing for access to a single female's unfertilized eggs, fertilization success was significantly biased towards the male whose sperm swam fastest in the female...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


A symbiosis between excavators and fungi
Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of wh...


Prairie dogs kill ground squirrels
Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels ...


Metabolic plasticity in naked mole rats
In this study, we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic metabolic response (HMR) of freely behaving naked mole rats following 8&ndash;10 days of chronic sustained normoxia (CSN) or CSH. Specifically, we investigated the role of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter -amino butyric acid (GABA) in mediating these responses. Our study yielded three important findings. First, naked mole rats did not exhibit ventilatory plasticity following CSH, which is unique among adult animals studied to date. Second, GABA receptor (GABAR) antagonism altered breathing patterns in CSN and CSH animals and modulated the acute HVR in CSN animals. Third, naked mole rats exhibited GABAR-dependent metabolic plasticity following long-term hypoxia, such...


The Structure Inventory of the Nuclear Pore Complex
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Thomas U. Schwartz The nuclear pore complex is the principal gateway for molecular exchange between nucleus and cytoplasm across the nuclear envelope. Due to its sheer size of estimated 50-112 MDa and its complex buildup from about 500-1000 individual proteins, it is a difficult object to study for structural biologists. Here I review the extensive ensemble of high-resolution structures of the building blocks of the NPC. Concurrent with the increase in size and complexity, these latest, large structures and assemblies can now be used as the basis for hybrid approaches, primarily in combination with cryo-electron microscopic analysis, generating the first structure-based assembly models of the...


Structural dynamics and mechanochemical coupling in DNA gyrase
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Aakash Basu, Angelica C. Parente, Zev Bryant Gyrase is a molecular motor that harnesses the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to perform mechanical work on DNA. The enzyme specifically introduces negative supercoiling in a process that must coordinate fuel consumption with DNA cleavage and religation and with numerous conformational changes in both the protein and DNA components of a large nucleoprotein complex. Here we present a current understanding of mechanochemical coupling in this essential molecular machine, with a focus on recent diverse biophysical approaches that have revealed details of molecular architectures, new conformational intermediates, structural transitions modulated by ATP...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Evolution of protein quaternary structure in response to selective pressure for increased thermostability
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Nicholas J. Fraser, Jian-Wei Liu, Peter D. Mabbitt, Galen Correy, Chris W. Coppin, Mathilde Lethier, Matthew A. Perugini, James M. Murphy, John G. Oakeshott, Martin Weik, Colin J. Jackson Oligomerization has been suggested to be an important mechanism for increasing or maintaining the thermostability of proteins. Although it is evident that protein–protein contacts can result in substantial stabilization in many extant proteins, evidence for evolutionary selection for oligomerization is largely indirect and little is understood of the early steps in the evolution of oligomers. A laboratory-directed evolution experiment that selected for increased thermostability in the αE7 carbox...


Rapid dynamic changes of the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye: A method of automatic spatial correction of a temporal sequence of OCT images
Ocular dynamics is a very complex phenomenon which has not been well studied and understood yet. The way in which the eye responds to pulsatile changes of the blood pressure or even the electric activity of the heart depends not only on the mechanical properties of each individual structure of the eye globe, but also on its internal conditions, such as the degree of accommodation or intraocular pressure (IOP). (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)


Automatic segmentation of maxillofacial cysts in cone beam CT images
Accurate segmentation of cysts and tumors is an essential step for diagnosis, monitoring and planning therapeutic intervention. This task is usually done manually, however manual identification and segmentation is tedious. In this paper, an automatic method based on asymmetry analysis is proposed which is general enough to segment various types of jaw cysts.The key observation underlying this approach is that normal head and face structure is roughly symmetric with respect to midsagittal plane: the left part and the right part can be divided equally by an axis of symmetry. (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)


PDB2Graph: A Toolbox for Identifying Critical Amino Acids Map in Proteins Based on Graph Theory
The integrative and cooperative nature of protein structure involves the assessment of topological and global features of constituent parts. Network concept takes complete advantage of both of these properties in the analysis concomitantly. High compatibility to structural concepts or physicochemical properties in addition to exploiting a remarkable simplification in the system has made network an ideal tool to explore biological systems. There are numerous examples in which different protein structural and functional characteristics have been clarified by the network approach. (Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)


Lipids in pollen - they are different
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


7 T renal MRI: challenges and promises
Abstract The progression to 7 Tesla (7 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields promises of substantial increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. This increase can be traded off to increase image spatial resolution or to decrease acquisition time. However, renal 7 T MRI remains challenging due to inhomogeneity of the radiofrequency field and due to specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. A number of studies has been published in the field of renal 7 T imaging. While the focus initially was on anatomic imaging and renal MR angiography, later studies have explored renal functional imaging. Although anatomic imaging remains somewhat limited by inhomogeneous excitation and SAR constraints, functional imaging results are promising. The increased SNR at 7 T has been particularly ad...


Disposition and Safety of Inhaled Biodegradable Nanomedicines: Opportunities and Challenges
The inhaled delivery of nanomedicines can provide a novel, non-invasive therapeutic strategy for the more localised treatment of lung-resident diseases and potentially also enable the systemic delivery of therapeutics that are otherwise administered via injection alone. However, the clinical translation of inhalable nanomedicine is being hampered by our lack of understanding about their disposition and clearance from the lungs. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biodegradable nanomaterials that are currently being explored as inhalable drug delivery systems and our current understanding of their disposition within, and clearance from the lungs. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


p85α is an intrinsic regulator of human natural killer cell effector functions
The inositol phospholipid signaling plays an important role in the biology of natural killer (NK) cells.1 A major role in this signaling cascade has been attributed to phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K). Class I PI3Ks are divided into class IA (p110α, p110β, p110δ) and class IB (p110γ) kinases, which interact with the regulatory subunits p85α, p50α, p55α, p85β and p55γ (class IA) and p101 and p84 (class IB).1 Mice lacking only the p85α regulatory subunit, encoded by the PIK3R1 gene, did not show any NK-cell defects,2 whereas mice lacking both the p85α and its alternatively spliced variants p50α/p55α showed maturational and functional NK-cell defects. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)


Her2-neu score as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients with triple-negative breast cancer
Conclusion The Her2-neu score 0 might be considered as an innovative prognostic factor for patients with TNBC indicating poor clinical outcome. (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology)


Circulating sclerostin levels and cardiovascular risk in obesity
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in bone metabolism and in other various metabolic functions [1]. Beside its impact on the bone mass regulation [2], it is also involved in vascular cell biology [3]. Additionally, gene mutation implicated in this pathway is associated with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and early coronary artery disease in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients [4]. Sclerostin is an inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and it causes decrease in bone formation [2]. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


In Vitro Dentine Remineralization with a Potential Salivary Phosphoprotein Homologue
(Source: Archives of Oral Biology)


Effects of therapy on masseter activity and chewing kinematics in patients with unilateral posterior crossbite
(Source: Archives of Oral Biology)


A novel homozygous PTH1R variant identified through whole-exome sequencing further expands the clinical spectrum of primary failure of tooth eruption in a consanguineous Saudi family
(Source: Archives of Oral Biology)


Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide is Involved in Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells
(Source: Archives of Oral Biology)


Gender and Graft-versus-Host Disease after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
(Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Dhea Supplementation and ICSI Outcomes: was this Really Randomized Trial?
Thank you for the opportunity to respond to comments related to our article regarding of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) use in women with poor ovarian reserve. [1] We very much appreciate the feedback about our work. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology)


Pulmonary Abnormalities in Young, Light-use Waterpipe (Hookah) Smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: Young, light-use waterpipe-only smokers have a variety of abnormalities in multiple lung-related biologic and clinical parameters, suggesting that even limited waterpipe use has broad consequences on human lung biology and health. We suggest that large epidemiologic studies should be initiated on the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. PMID: 27007171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)


Toxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Titanium Dioxide Bulk Salt in the Liver and Blood of Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Assessed by Different Assays.
This study evaluated the toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) bulk salt as well as its nanoparticles (NPs) in anatase phase with mean crystallite size of 36.15 nm in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injections at four different dose levels of either control (0), 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of rat for 28 days on alternate days. Animal mortality, haematology, micronucleus assay, liver histology and activities of liver tissue damage markers like, alkaline phosphate (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), as well as oxidative stress indicators like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were investigated. The study revealed significant differences (P...


Effects of Corticosterone on Immune Functions of Cultured Rat Splenic Lymphocytes Exposed to Aluminum Trichloride.
In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that low concentration Cort relieves the immunotoxicity of AlCl3 on the splenic lymphocytes, whereas high concentration Cort aggravates it. PMID: 27008427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biological Trace Element Research)


Selenium Deficiency Activates Heat Shock Protein Expression in Chicken Spleen and Thymus.
Authors: Khoso PA, Liu C, Liu C, Khoso MH, Li S Abstract Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are protective proteins present in nearly all species; they are used as biomarkers of various stress conditions in humans, animals, and birds. Selenium (Se) deficiency, which can depress the production of Hsps, can cause chicken tissue injuries. To investigate Hsp production, mRNA, and protein levels in Se-deficient chicken spleens and thymuses, a total of 180 1-day-old sea blue white laying hens (90 chickens/group) were harvested in two groups (the control group and the Se-deficient group) in 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days, respectively. The results showed that mRNA levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90 were significantly increased in the spleens and thymuses of the Se-deficient group compa...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Molluscan shell colour.
Authors: Williams ST Abstract The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate ...


Proton therapy monitoring by Compton imaging: influence of the large energy spectrum of the prompt-γ radiation.
Authors: Hilaire E, Sarrut D, Peyrin F, Maxim V Abstract In proton therapy, the prompt-γ (PG) radiation produced by the interactions between protons and matter is related to the range of the beam in the patient. Tomographic Compton imaging is currently studied to establish a PG image and verify the treatment. However the quality of the reconstructed images depends on a number of factors such as the volume attenuation, the spatial and energy resolutions of the detectors, incomplete absorptions of high energy photons and noise from other particles reaching the camera. The impact of all these factors was not assessed in details. In this paper we investigate the influence of the PG energy spectrum on the reconstructed images. To this aim, we describe the process from the Monte Carlo s...


Robust breathing signal extraction from cone beam CT projections based on adaptive and global optimization techniques.
We present a study of extracting respiratory signals from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections within the framework of the Amsterdam Shroud (AS) technique. Acquired prior to the radiotherapy treatment, CBCT projections were preprocessed for contrast enhancement by converting the original intensity images to attenuation images with which the AS image was created. An adaptive robust z-normalization filtering was applied to further augment the weak oscillating structures locally. From the enhanced AS image, the respiratory signal was extracted using a two-step optimization approach to effectively reveal the large-scale regularity of the breathing signals. CBCT projection images from five patients acquired with the Varian Onboard Imager on the Clinac iX System Linear Accelerator (V...


Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform.
We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks. PMID: 27008208 [PubMed - a...


A framework for organ dose estimation in x-ray angiography and interventional radiology based on dose-related data in DICOM structured reports.
Authors: Omar A, Bujila R, Fransson A, Andreo P, Poludniowski G Abstract Although interventional x-ray angiography (XA) procedures involve relatively high radiation doses that can lead to deterministic tissue reactions in addition to stochastic effects, convenient and accurate estimation of absorbed organ doses has traditionally been out of reach. This has mainly been due to the absence of practical means to access dose-related data that describe the physical context of the numerous exposures during an XA procedure. The present work provides a comprehensive and general framework for the determination of absorbed organ dose, based on non-proprietary access to dose-related data by utilizing widely available DICOM radiation dose structured reports. The framework comprises a straightfo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


The effect of respiratory induced density variations on non-TOF PET quantitation in the lung.
Authors: Holman BF, Cuplov V, Hutton BF, Groves AM, Thielemans K Abstract Accurate PET quantitation requires a matched attenuation map. Obtaining matched CT attenuation maps in the thorax is difficult due to the respiratory cycle which causes both motion and density changes. Unlike with motion, little attention has been given to the effects of density changes in the lung on PET quantitation. This work aims to explore the extent of the errors caused by pulmonary density attenuation map mismatch on dynamic and static parameter estimates. Dynamic XCAT phantoms were utilised using clinically relevant (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FMISO time activity curves for all organs within the thorax to estimate the expected parameter errors. The simulations were then validated with PET data from 5 patients...


The actin-binding ERM protein Moesin directly regulates spindle assembly and function during mitosis.
Authors: Vilmos P, Kristó I, Szikora S, Jankovics F, Lukácsovich T, Kari B, Erdélyi M Abstract Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin proteins are highly conserved, actin-binding cytoskeletal proteins that play an essential role in microvilli formation, T-cell activation, and tumor metastasis by linking actin filaments to the plasma membrane. Recent studies demonstrated that the only Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin protein of Drosophila melanogaster, Moesin, is involved in mitotic spindle function through stabilizing cell shape and microtubules at the cell cortex. We previously observed that Moesin localizes to the mitotic spindle; hence we tested for the biological significance of this surprising localization and investigated whether it plays a direct role in spindle function. To separate the cortical and ...


A novel small molecule, Rosline, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cells A549 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.
In this study, using non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 to screen against a structurally novel and diverse synthetic small molecule library of 2,400 compounds, we identified a molecule named rosline that has strong anti-proliferation activity on A549 cells with a 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 2.87 ± 0.39µM. We showed that rosline treatment increased the number of Annexin V-positive staining cell, as well as G2/M arrest in their cell cycle progression. Further, we have demonstrated that rosline induces a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δϕm) and an increase of caspase 3/7 and caspase 9 activities in A549 cells, while having no effect on the activity of caspase 8. Moreover, we found that rosline could induce the production of reactive oxygen speci...


Dimethyloxalylglycine may be enhance the capacity of neural- like cells in treatment of Alzheimer disease.
Authors: Moravej FG, Vahabian M, Asl SS Abstract Although, using differentiated stem cells are the best proposed option for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD), an efficient differentiation and cell therapy requires enhanced cell survival and homing and decreased apoptosis. It seems that hypoxia preconditioning via Dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) may increase the capacity of MSC to induce neural like stem cells (NSCs). Furthermore, it can likely improve the viability of NSCs when transplanted into the brain of AD rats. PMID: 27005959 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cell Biology International)


Autophagy regulates the apoptosis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxic condition via AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.
Authors: Zhang Z, Yang M, Wang Y, Wang L, Jin Z, Ding L, Zhang L, Zhang L, Jiang W, Gao G, Yang J, Lu B, Cao F, Hu T Abstract Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been demonstrated as an ideal autologous stem cells source for cell-based therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). However, poor viability of donor stem cells after transplantation limits their therapeutic efficiency, whereas, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. Autophagy, a highly conserved process of cellular degradation, is required for maintaining homeostasis and normal function. Here we investigated the potential role of autophagy on apoptosis in BM-MSCs induced by hypoxic injury. BM-MSCs, isolated from male C57BL/6 mice, were subjected to hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD) inju...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Primary or Interval Debulking? Five Categories of Patients in View of the Results of Randomized Trials and Tumor Biology: Primary Debulking Surgery and Interval Debulking Surgery for Advanced Ovarian Cancer.
CONCLUSION: We propose stratifying AOC patients into five categories according to patterns of tumor spread (reflecting the biologic behavior), response to chemotherapy, and prognosis to make a more rational decision between PDS and NACT-IDS. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Trial results regarding effect and timing of debulking surgery on survival of patients with advanced ovarian cancer have been inconsistent and hence difficult to interpret. This review examines all randomized trials on primary and interval debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer, including the results of the newly published CHORUS (chemotherapy or up-front surgery for newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer) trial. On the basis of findings presented in this review and in view of recent molecular data on heterogeneity...


The Mechanism of Germline Sex Determination in Vertebrates.
Authors: Nishimura T, Tanaka M Abstract Germ cells are the common cells of origin for both types of two different gametes: sperm and eggs. In vertebrates so far examined, the sex of germ cells is determined by gonadal somatic cells. However, influenced by the somatic cells, how germ cells adopt their sexual fates by intrinsic factors has long been unclear in vertebrates. We recently identified forkhead box L3 (Foxl3) as a germ cell-intrinsic factor involved in the sperm-egg fate decision in the teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes). On the basis of the results obtained by the analysis offoxl3/Foxl3 expression and loss-of-function mutants, we review when and how germ cell sex is regulated non-cell autonomously and cell-autonomously. We then discuss that the germline sex determinati...


Inhibitory Control of the Brain-Pituitary Reproductive Axis of Male European Sea Bass: Role of Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone.
Authors: Yan H Abstract Reproduction in vertebrates is controlled by a hierarchically organized endocrine system called the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In the early of 1970s, two teams, Schally's and Guillemin's, discovered gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates the release of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary of mammals [1-3]. Subsequently, several GnRHs have been identified in other vertebrates [4-6], and it is generally accepted that GnRH is the only hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates the release of gonadotropin in mammals and other vertebrates. Despite the divergent reproductive strategies and behaviors within this taxon, this endocrine...


Inflammatory Response of Human Gestational Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Using a Novel Dual-Chamber Tissue Explant System.
Authors: Potts LC, Feng L, Seed PC, Jayes FL, Kuchibhatla M, Antczak B, Nazzal MK, Murtha AP Abstract Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is often associated with intra-amniotic inflammation and infection. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of PPROM includes activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes leading to compromise of membrane integrity. The impact of exposure to bacterial pathogens, includingUreaplasma parvum, on gestational membranes is poorly understood. Our objective was to develop a dual-chamber system to characterize the inflammatory response of gestational membranes toU. parvumin a directional nature. Full-thickness human gestational membrane explants, with either choriodecidua or amnion oriented superiorly, were suspended betwe...


Luteinizing Hormone Causes Phosphorylation and Activation of the cGMP Phosphodiesterase PDE5 in Rat Ovarian Follicles, Contributing, Together with PDE1 Activity, to the Resumption of Meiosis.
Authors: Egbert JR, Uliasz TF, Shuhaibar LC, Geerts A, Wunder F, Kleiman RJ, Humphrey JM, Lampe PD, Artemyev NO, Rybalkin SD, Beavo JA, Movsesian MA, Jaffe LA Abstract The meiotic cell cycle of mammalian oocytes in preovulatory follicles is held in prophase arrest by diffusion of cGMP from the surrounding granulosa cells into the oocyte. Luteinizing hormone (LH) then releases meiotic arrest by lowering cGMP in the granulosa cells. The LH-induced reduction of cGMP is caused in part by a decrease in guanylyl cyclase activity, but the observation that the cGMP phosphodiesterase PDE5 is phosphorylated during LH signaling suggests that an increase in PDE5 activity could also contribute. To investigate this idea, we measured cGMP-hydrolytic activity in rat ovarian follicles. Basal activi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Genetic Analyses Reveal Functions for MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 in Mouse Testis Determination.
Authors: Warr N, Siggers P, Carre GA, Wells S, Greenfield A Abstract Testis determination in mammals is initiated by expression ofSRYin somatic cells of the embryonic gonad. Genetic analyses in the mouse have revealed a requirement for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in testis determination: targeted loss of the kinases MAP3K4 and p38 MAPK causes complete XY embryonic gonadal sex reversal. These kinases occupy positions at the top and bottom level, respectively, in the canonical three-tier MAPK signaling cascade: MAP3K, MAP2K, MAPK. To date, no role in sex determination has been attributed to a MAP2K, although such a function is predicted to exist. Here, we report roles for the kinases MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 in testis determination. C57BL/6J (B6) embryos lacking MAP2K3...


Demographic and genetic connectivity: the role and consequences of reproduction, dispersal and recruitment in seagrasses.
Authors: Kendrick GA, Orth RJ, Statton J, Hovey R, Ruiz Montoya L, Lowe RJ, Krauss SL, Sinclair EA Abstract Accurate estimation of connectivity among populations is fundamental for determining the drivers of population resilience, genetic diversity, adaptation and speciation. However the separation and quantification of contemporary versus historical connectivity remains a major challenge. This review focuses on marine angiosperms, seagrasses, that are fundamental to the health and productivity of temperate and tropical coastal marine environments globally. Our objective is to understand better the role of sexual reproduction and recruitment in influencing demographic and genetic connectivity among seagrass populations through an integrated multidisciplinary assessment of our prese...


The Genetic Paradox of Invasions revisited: the potential role of inbreeding × environment interactions in invasion success.
Authors: Schrieber K, Lachmuth S Abstract Invasive species that successfully establish, persist, and expand within an area of introduction, in spite of demographic bottlenecks that reduce their genetic diversity, represent a paradox. Bottlenecks should inhibit population growth and invasive expansion, as a decrease in genetic diversity should result in inbreeding depression, increased fixation of deleterious mutations by genetic drift (drift load), and reduced evolutionary potential to respond to novel selection pressures. Here, we focus on the problems of inbreeding depression and drift load in introduced populations as key components of the Genetic Paradox of Invasions (GPI). We briefly review published explanations for the GPI, which are based on various mechanisms (invasion his...


Authors’ Response: DHEA supplementation and ICSI outcomes: was this really randomized trial?
Thank you for the opportunity to respond to comments related to our article regarding of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) use in women with poor ovarian reserve [1]. We very much appreciate the feedback about our work. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Ten Years of DNA Origami
This article was reproduced with... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American Topic - Nanotechnology)


Symposium honors Yale Nobel laureate Sidney Altman
Some of the world’s top biologists will make presentations at the Greenberg Center on Thursday, March 24 at the Sidney Altman Symposium honoring Yale’s 1989 Nobel laureate in chemistry. (Source: Yale Science and Health News)


Genomic and Epigenomic Landscape in Meningioma
Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms in adults. Despite their prevalence, their biologic underpinnings remain incompletely described. The recent application of unbiased next-generation sequencing and epigenomic approaches has implicated a new array of candidate biomarkers and oncogenic drivers. These insights may serve to craft a molecular taxonomy for meningiomas and highlight putative therapeutic targets in an era of biology-informed precision medicine. (Source: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America)


Ten Years of DNA Origami
This article was reproduced with... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


EGF-coated gold nanoparticles provide an efficient nano-scale delivery system for the molecular radiotherapy of EGFR-positive cancer.
Conclusions An (111)In-labeled EGF-Au nanosystem was developed. It enabled targeted delivery of a high (111)In payload specifically to EGFR-positive cancer cells leading to radiotoxicity that can be exploited for molecularly targeted radiotherapy. PMID: 26999580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Entomological Society of America to Launch New Journal; Editor-in-Chief Search Underway
Annapolis, MD; March 17, 2016 &ndash; The Entomological Society of America (ESA) is launching a new journal, Insect Systematics and Diversity, scheduled to begin publication in January 2017. The new journal is seeking candidates to serve as its founding editor-in-chief. &nbsp; Insect Systematics and Diversity will publish original research on systematics, evolution, and biodiversity of insects and related arthropods. read more (Source: ESA News)


ESA to Launch New Journal; Editor-in-Chief Search Underway
Annapolis, MD; March 17, 2016 &ndash; The Entomological Society of America (ESA) is launching a new journal, Insect Systematics and Diversity, scheduled to begin publication in January 2017. The new journal is seeking candidates to serve as its founding editor-in-chief. &nbsp; Insect Systematics and Diversity will publish original research on systematics, evolution, and biodiversity of insects and related arthropods. read more (Source: ESA News)


The Toll of Vascular Insufficiency: Implications for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease.
Authors: Xu J, Sachdev U Abstract Peripheral artery disease (PAD) can result in limb loss within six months of diagnosis in a subset of patients who cannot undergo endovascular or surgical revascularization yet continues to maintain a marginal position in cardiovascular research. While a body of literature continues to grow describing the role of danger signaling and innate immunity in cardiac biology, the role of these pathways in the ischemic myopathy associated with PAD has not been extensively studied. The following report will review the current literature on the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in cardiovascular biology as well as in nonischemic myopathy. While attenuation of TLR signaling has not been shown to be clinically useful in the treatment of infectious inf...


Contents Vol. 9, 2015
Sex Dev 2015;9:I-IV (Source: Sexual Development)


Large‐scale gene expression reveals different adaptations of Hyalopterus persikonus to winter and summer host plants
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Insect Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Modern Peanut's Wild Cousin, Thought Extinct, Found in Andes
A new study reveals how two ancient species of this legume were combined 10,000 years ago, in Andean valleys, to create the modern peanut -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


Cortisol linked to increased aggression in 10-year-old boys
Writing in the American Journal of Human Biology, Spanish researchers associate a rise in cortisol levels with aggression in young boys. EurekAlert (Source: Society for Endocrinology)


Scientists identify key protein in sperm
A breakthrough in the understanding of the biology of sperm could lead to a unisex version of the Pill, US government-funded scientists told the American Chemical Society annual conference. Daily Mail&nbsp; (Source: Society for Endocrinology)


Meetings
March 11-13, 2016 (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


Issue Highlights
Nguyen (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Rethinking the Balance of Risk and Benefit of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer
In this month's Oncology Scan, we review 1 article from the Journal of the American Medical Association and 2 from the Journal of Clinical Oncology that help inform judgments about the relative value and harm of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), particularly for men with intermediate-risk disease. The first is the long-term update of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI)/D'Amico randomized trial of radiation with or without 6 months of ADT, and the final 2 are studies evaluating the relationship between ADT and cognitive dysfunction. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


In Regard to Ahmed et al
To the Editor: We read with interest the article by Ahmed et al (1) showing that “medical student applications to radiation oncology are waning relative to those of other specialties.” As indicated in the report, candidates matching in radiation oncology have significant research experience. Thus, a competitive applicant ideally develops a sustained interest early in order to have the sufficient time for quality research. This is supported by the observation that medical students with both clinical and research mentorship in radiation oncology were more likely to become a resident in the field (2). (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


In Regard to Canal et al
To the Editor: I read with great fascination but also dismay the article by Canal and Limkin (1). I am stunned that there are 65 radiation oncologists dealing with a population of 105 million (1). Australia has 354 active radiation oncologists dealing with a population of 23 million (2). New Zealand, with a similar number of radiation oncologists to the Philippines (56), has a population of approximately 4.5 million (3). (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


In Reply to Ye et al
To the Editor: We thank the commentators for the insightful comments (1) regarding our observations vis-à-vis medical student applications to radiation oncology (2). We agree with the importance of early exposure for medical students to our field. In addition to providing ample time to improve a residency application, early exposure serves to dispel misperceptions that may discourage exceptional medical students from applying to the field. In addition, attracting a larger breadth of medical students to radiation oncology may require targeting students at medical schools without associated residency programs. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


In Reply to Leung
To the Editor: The letter from Dr Leung (1) regarding our article on radiation therapy in the Philippines (2) was gratefully received. There are more medical oncologists than radiation oncologists simply because there are more accredited training programs with available slots and therefore trainees. Why is this so? Chemotherapy drugs are easier to come by. There are a limited number of machines. We are very careful about the number of residents that we train. What would happen to our trainees if no hospital or facility would absorb them and provide an opportunity for practice? (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


In Regard to Nagata et al
To the Editor: I read with interest the article by Nagata et al (1) on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in 100 inoperable and 64 operable patients with clinical stage T1N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with 48 Gy in 12 fractions. For the 100 inoperable patients, the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 59.9%, and for the 64 operable patients, the 3-year OS rate was 76.5%. Although the authors also provided corresponding data for a number of additional endpoints, the cancer-specific survival (CSS) data were missing. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


In Regard to Bruner et al
To the Editor: We read the recent article by Bruner et al (1) with great interest. We congratulate the authors on performing this important analysis of accrual patterns in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials. As in previous studies of this topic (2), the authors demonstrated that minorities are dramatically underrepresented in clinical cancer trials. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


Real-Time 3D Image Guidance Using a Standard LINAC: Measured Motion, Accuracy, and Precision of the First Prospective Clinical Trial of Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring–Guided Gating for Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy
Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a new real-time 3-dimensional image guidance method. Unlike previous real-time image guidance methods, KIM uses a standard linear accelerator without any additional equipment needed. The first prospective clinical trial of KIM is underway for prostate cancer radiation therapy. In this paper we report on the measured motion accuracy and precision using real-time KIM-guided gating. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


Modeling Intercellular Communication as a Survival Strategy of Cancer Cells: An In Silico Approach on a Flexible Bioinformatics Framework.
Authors: Cárdenas-García M, González-Pérez PP, Montagna S, Cortés OS, Caballero EH Abstract Intercellular communication is very important for cell development and allows a group of cells to survive as a population. Cancer cells have a similar behavior, presenting the same mechanisms and characteristics of tissue formation. In this article, we model and simulate the formation of different communication channels that allow an interaction between two cells. This is a first step in order to simulate in the future processes that occur in healthy tissue when normal cells surround a cancer cell and to interrupt the communication, thus preventing the spread of malignancy into these cells. The purpose of this study is to propose key molecules, which can be targeted to allow us to break...


Why Water Makes Us Feel Calm
Many of us know that being around water makes us calmer and more creative. Science knows it, too: A recent study even showed that people who live near the ocean&#160;report feeling less stress and better health&#160;than those who don't. &#160; But what is it&#160;about water that makes us feel this way? To be honest, it's still a mystery, says Mathew White, an environmental psychologist at the University of Exeter. "There seems to be something very special about water," he told The Huffington Post.&#160;"But we don't know yet exactly [what it is]." White and his colleagues have conducted extensive research on the link between water and our mental state. Along with marine biologist Wallace J. Nichols, who explores the topic in his book Blue Mind, they're key players in creating a theory ab...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Preparedness for the Zika Virus: A Public Health Emergency
University of California, San Francisco. 03/07/2016This symposium on preparedness for the Zika virus was presented by researchers from University of California at San Francisco, Berkeley, and Davis; Stanford University; and public health officials. Topics include epidemiology and prevention, basic science of the Zika virus, vector biology and control, clinical management, maternal-fetal medicine, pediatrics, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and policy. The Part 1 recording is two hours and 12 minutes; Part 2 is two hours and 42 minutes. (Video or Multimedia) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)


After virologist warned about man-made plague strains being covertly developed and distributed, she was framed and harassed
(NaturalNews) A research biochemist and molecular biologist who has long believed that the vaccine movement is dangerous, has become the target of government harassment and intimidation, having even been jailed at one point, all because she refused to destroy documents in an attempt... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Migratory birds disperse seeds long distances
(FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology) Some species of plants are capable of colonizing new habitats thanks to birds that transport their seeds in their plumage or digestive tract. Until recently it was known that birds could do this over short distances, but a new study shows that they are also capable of dispersing them over more than 300 kilometers. For researchers, this function could be key in the face of climate change, allowing the survival of many species. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Microagents with revolutionary potential
(ETH Zurich) Micro and nanorobots that attack tumors with maximum precision using drugs: this is what the fight against cancer may look like in the future. A group of ETH researchers led by Salvador Pané are laying the foundations with magnetoelectric-controlled Janus machines. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


University of Leicester mathematicians provide solution to 78 year old mystery
(University of Leicester) University of Leicester research brings old problem of adaptation energy to light. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Fish bond when they eat the same food
(Springer) For some fish, it makes more sense to swim around with those that share their taste in food -- and smell similar in the process -- than to shoal with members of their own species. That is among the findings of a study led by Tanja Kleinhappel of the University of Lincoln in the UK, in Springer's journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Stirling scientist wins £1.1 million to tackle global environmental conflicts
(University of Stirling) University of Stirling scientist, Dr Nils Bunnefeld, is tackling one of the biggest environmental problems facing government agencies and communities across the globe -how humans and wildlife can co-exist successfully. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Making the most out of biological observations data
(Pensoft Publishers) Creating and maintaining a biodiversity data collection has been a much-needed worldwide exercise for years, yet there is no single standard on how to do this. To make the most out of biodiversity data and to ensure that its use for environmental monitoring and conservation is easy and legal, the FP7-funded EU project EU BON published recommendations. These recommendations provide for consistent Europe-wide Data Publishing Guidelines and Recommendations in the EU BON Biodiversity Portal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Adherence to nutrition recommendations and use of supplements essential for vegans
(University of Eastern Finland) Vegans adhere to nutrition recommendations in varying degrees, according to a new Finnish study. Some vegans who participated in the study followed a balanced diet, while others had dietary deficiencies. Typical deficiencies were an unbalanced use of protein sources, a low intake of berries, fruits and nuts, as well as failure to use nutrient fortified food products. The majority, however, used vitamin B12 and D supplements and calcium-fortified drinks as recommended. The findings were published in PLOS ONE. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Immunoproteasome inhibits healing function of macrophages
(Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health) Scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München, a partner in the German Center for Lung Research, have observed that the immunoproteasome inhibits the repair function of alveolar macrophages. This opens up new therapeutic options. A specific inhibition of the immunoproteasome may promote healing processes of the lung. The results have now been published in the journal Cell Death & Differentiation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


ASAA's SleepHealth mobile study app grows along with Apple
(American Sleep Apnea Association) Today, the American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA) announced that its SleepHealth app takes advantage of improvements in Apple iOS 9.3 by being the first ResearchKit app to incorporate the new Night Shift mode into its study and wellness tool. Night Shift automatically shifts the colors in one's display to the warmer end of the spectrum in conjunction with sunset based on the user's time and location. In the morning, it returns the display to its regular settings. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Scientists reveal how animals find their way 'in the dark'
(eLife ) Scientists have revealed the brain activity in animals that helps them find food and other vital resources in unfamiliar environments where there are no cues, such as lights and sounds, to guide them. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Deadly flatworm's skin rejuvenation may explain its long-term survival in humans
(eLife ) A parasitic flatworm that infects hundreds of millions of people in the developing world is able to survive in the bloodstream for decades by constantly renewing its skin - a mechanism that could inform potential new treatments against infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Lake Erie phosphorus-reduction targets challenging but achievable
(University of Michigan) Large-scale changes to agricultural practices will be required to meet the goal of reducing levels of algae-promoting phosphorus in Lake Erie by 40 percent, a new University of Michigan-led, multi-institution computer modeling study concludes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


'Burnt Hot Dog' sea cucumbers raise red flags for threatened global fisheries
(California Academy of Sciences) 'Burnt Hot Dog' sea cucumbers take center stage in a new genetic study that digs into their valued spot in marine ecosystems across Japan's Okinawa Island as well as their extreme vulnerability to environmental stress and over-fishing. A team of researchers, including an expert from the California Academy of Sciences, says their study's findings are an urgent call for increased fisheries management and protections for ecologically important sea cucumbers worldwide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Carbon leads the way in clean energy
(Griffith University) Groundbreaking research at Griffith University is leading the way in clean energy, with the use of carbon as a way to deliver energy using hydrogen. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Nitrogen factories in the Cretaceous oceans
(University of Bristol) Researchers have discovered a 'bizarre' microorganism which plays a key role in the food web of Earth's oceans. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Unravelling the secret of antibiotic resistance
(University of Leeds) Scientists from the University of Leeds have solved a 25-year-old question about how a family of proteins allow bacteria to resist the effects of certain antibiotics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Contact lenses alter eye bacteria, making it more skin-like
(American Society for Microbiology) Contact lenses may alter the natural microbial community of the eyes, according to a study published this week in mBio®, an online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


National Science Foundation invests in a clean water future
(National Science Foundation) Today, at the White House Water Summit, the National Science Foundation joins other federal agencies to emphasize its commitment to a sustainable water future.Access to affordable clean water is vital for energy generation, food cultivation and basic life support. With drought pressure and population demands, water is an increasingly precious resource. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Discovery of extinct bat doubles diversity of native Hawaiian land mammals
(American Museum of Natural History) The Hawaiian Islands have long been thought to support just one endemic land mammal in the archipelago's brief geologic history, the Hawaiian hoary bat. But new fossil evidence indicates that a second, very different species of bat lived alongside the hoary bat for thousands of years before going extinct shortly after humans arrived on the islands. The research describes the mysterious bat, whose remains were first discovered in a lava tube more than 30 years ago. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


'Watchdog' for greenhouse gas emissions
(Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA)) Mistakes can happen when estimating emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. Researchers from Empa, the University of Berne and ETH Zurich funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation have developed a method to independently validate national statistics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


ORNL researchers invent tougher plastic with 50 percent renewable content
(DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have made a better thermoplastic by replacing styrene with lignin, a brittle, rigid polymer that, with cellulose, forms the woody cell walls of plants. In doing so, they have invented a solvent-free production process that interconnects equal parts of nanoscale lignin dispersed in a synthetic rubber matrix to produce a meltable, moldable, ductile material that's at least ten times tougher than ABS, a common thermoplastic. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Fungus that threatens chocolate forgoes sexual reproduction for cloning
(Purdue University) A fungal disease that poses a serious threat to cacao plants -- the source of chocolate -- reproduces clonally, Purdue University researchers find. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


NREL's capabilities boost a wide range of innovative ARPA-E research
(DOE/National Renewable Energy Laboratory) The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will play key roles in a variety of projects recently funded by the Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). NREL's innovative approaches have received five awards across three different ARPA-E programs for advancing transformational technologies to generate, store, and use energy more efficiently, at lower costs and with reduced emissions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Human-driven carbon release rate unprecedented in past 66 million years
(National Science Foundation) The earliest measurements of Earth's climate using thermometers and other tools start in the 1850s.To look further back in time, scientists investigate air bubbles trapped in ice cores, expanding the scope of climate records to nearly a million years. But to study Earth's history over millions of years, researchers examine the chemical and biological signatures in deep-sea sediments. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Research advance may lead to new treatments for glaucoma
(Wiley) Researchers have developed a tool to not only model the underlying disease mechanisms of glaucoma, but also to help discover and test new pharmacological strategies to combat the neurodegeneration that occurs in patients with glaucoma. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Georgia State's Deocampo participates in White House Water Summit
(Georgia State University) Daniel Deocampo, associate professor and chair of Geosciences at Georgia State University, will attend the White House Water Summit today (March 22) to share his plans for bringing new technologies and workforce development to the water economy of the southeastern United States. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Why are people allergic to peanuts? (video)
(American Chemical Society) For 1 to 2 percent of the global population, eating a peanut butter and jelly sandwich could be potentially fatal. What makes peanut allergies so lethal, and why is the number of peanut-allergy sufferers on the rise? This week on Reactions, Andrew Maynard from Risk Bites explains what causes peanut allergies and why we need to rethink how we prevent them. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Abdominal tuberculosis in a low prevalence country.
CONCLUSION: New diagnostic procedures, and especially molecular biology, may help diagnose unusual clinical presentations of tuberculosis. Invasive procedures are frequently necessary to obtain samples but also for the treatment of digestive involvement. PMID: 26995289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses)


Volume 143 Issue 04
Parasitology, Volume 143 Issue 04 Parasitology is an important specialist journal covering the latest advances in the subject. It publishes original research and review papers on all aspects of parasitology and host-parasite relationships, including the latest discoveries in parasite biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, ecology and epidemiology in the context of the biological, medical and veterinary sciences. Included in the subscription price are two special issues which contain reviews of current hot topics, one of which is the proceedings of the annual Symposia of the British Society for Parasitology , while the second, covering areas of significant topical interest, is commissioned by the editors and the editorial board. (Source: Parasitology)


QS world university rankings 2016: biological sciences
The top 50 universities in the world for statistics and operational research, as ranked by higher education data specialists QSSee the top 200 rankings and QS institution profiles Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)


Three novel mutations of APC gene in Chinese patients with familial adenomatous polyposis
In this study, we identified three novel mutations as well as two recurrent mutations in the APC in five Chinese FAP families by sequencing. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that among these mutations, a nonsense mutation (c.2510C&gt;G) and two small deletions (c.2016_2047del, c.3180_3184del) led to the truncation of the APC protein and the cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in the colorectal samples from affected individuals, respectively. Our study expands the database on mutations of APC and provides evidence to understand the function of APC in FAP. (Source: Tumor Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


A pH-driven transition of the cytoplasm from a fluid- to a solid-like state promotes entry into dormancy
(Source: eLife)


A glucose-starvation response regulates the diffusion of macromolecules
(Source: eLife)


A novel biosensor to study cAMP dynamics in cilia and flagella
(Source: eLife)


Relaxin deficiency results in increased expression of angiogenesis- and remodelling-related genes in the uterus of early pregnant mice but does not affect endometrial angiogenesis prior to implantation
Extensive uterine adaptations, including angiogenesis, occur prior to implantation in early pregnancy and are potentially regulated by the peptide hormone relaxin. This was investigated in two studies. First, ... (Source: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology)


Polo-like kinase 1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes epithelial cell motility by activating CRAF/ERK signaling
(Source: eLife)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Numerical simulation of vascular tumour growth under antiangiogenic treatment: addressing the paradigm of single-agent bevacizumab therapy with the use of experimental data
Antiangiogenic agents have been recently added to the oncological armamentarium with bevacizumab probably being the most popular representative in current clinical practice. The elucidation of the mode of acti... (Source: Biology Direct)


Preservation of methylated CpG dinucleotides in human CpG islands
CpG dinucleotides are extensively underrepresented in mammalian genomes. It is widely accepted that genome-wide CpG depletion is predominantly caused by an elevated CpG > TpG mutation rate due to frequent cyto... (Source: Biology Direct)


Seasonal cues induce phenotypic plasticity of Drosophila suzukii to enhance winter survival
As global climate change and exponential human population growth intensifies pressure on agricultural systems, the need to effectively manage invasive insect pests is becoming increasingly important to global ... (Source: BMC Ecology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Live-cell fluorescence imaging to investigate the dynamics of plant cell death during infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae
Plant cell death plays important roles during plant-pathogen interactions. To study pathogen-induced cell death, there is a need for cytological tools that allow determining not only host cell viability, but a... (Source: BMC Plant Biology)


microRNA-dependent gene regulatory networks in maize leaf senescence
Maize grain yield depends mainly on the photosynthetic efficiency of functional leaves, which is controlled by an array of gene networks and other factors, including environmental conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs... (Source: BMC Plant Biology)


Evaluation of the significance of cell wall polymers in flax infected with a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum
Fusarium oxysporum infection leads to Fusarium-derived wilt, which is responsible for the greatest losses in flax (Linum usitatissimum) crop yield. Plants infected by Fusarium oxysporu... (Source: BMC Plant Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Quantitative trait loci analysis and genome-wide comparison for silique related traits in Brassica napus
Yield of rapeseed is determined by three components: silique number, seed number per silique and thousand seed weight. Seed number per silique and thousand seed weight are influenced by silique length, seed de... (Source: BMC Plant Biology)


Abscisic acid transcriptomic signaling varies with grapevine organ
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various developmental processes and stress responses over both short (i.e. hours or days) and longer (i.e. months or seasons) time frames. To elucidate the transcriptional regulat... (Source: BMC Plant Biology)


Phylogenomics of a rapid radiation: is chromosomal evolution linked to increased diversification in north american spiny lizards (Genus Sceloporus)?
Resolving the short phylogenetic branches that result from rapid evolutionary diversification often requires large numbers of loci. We collected targeted sequence capture data from 585 nuclear loci (541 ultrac... (Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology)


Differential introgression and the maintenance of species boundaries in an advanced generation avian hybrid zone
Evolutionary processes, including selection and differential fitness, shape the introgression of genetic material across a hybrid zone, resulting in the exchange of some genes but not others. Differential intr... (Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology)


A simple method for studying the molecular mechanisms of ultraviolet and violet reception in vertebrates
Many vertebrate species use ultraviolet (UV) reception for such basic behaviors as foraging and mating, but many others switched to violet reception and improved their visual resolution. The respective phenoty... (Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology)


Evolution of East Asia’s Arcto-Tertiary relict Euptelea (Eupteleaceae) shaped by Late Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change
The evolutionary origin and historical demography of extant Arcto-Tertiary forest species in East Asia is still poorly understood. Here, we reconstructed the evolutionary and population demographic history of ... (Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology)


Learning stochastic process-based models of dynamical systems from knowledge and data
Identifying a proper model structure, using methods that address both structural and parameter uncertainty, is a crucial problem within the systems approach to biology. And yet, it has a marginal presence in t... (Source: BMC Systems Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Selection of reference genes for diurnal and developmental time-course real-time PCR expression analyses in lettuce
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis is a low cost and sensitive technique that is widely used to measure levels of gene expression. Selecting and validating appropriate referenc... (Source: Plant Methods)


Amazing Allison: A Young ‘Pioneer’ And The Boston Doctors Who Saved Her
BOSTON (CBS) &#8211; Just before Allison Schablein’s fifth birthday, she was diagnosed with brain cancer. Seven metastatic, malignant gliomas. Doctors could only remove one of them. Allison received chemotherapy. But it didn’t stop the cancer from growing. “She started with a terrible tumor in the worst circumstance,” says Dr. Mark Kieran, Director of Pediatric Neuro-Oncology at Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Fortunately, new technology allowed Dr. Kieran and the doctors at both Dana Farber and Boston Children’s Hospital to do a molecular profile of the single tumor they had removed. Incredibly, they discovered that Allison’s cancer had a mutation also found in some skin cancer patients—specifically adults with melanoma. And for those adult patients, there was actually a highl...


Overview of Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Distinct Breast Cancer Subtypes.
Authors: Usary J, Darr DB, Pfefferle AD, Perou CM Abstract Advances in the screening of new therapeutic options have significantly reduced the breast cancer death rate over the last decade. Despite these advances, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among women. This is due in part to the complexity of the disease, which is characterized by multiple subtypes that are driven by different genetic mechanisms and that likely arise from different cell types of origin. Because these differences often drive treatment options and outcomes, it is important to select relevant preclinical model systems to study new therapeutic interventions and tumor biology. Described in this unit are the characteristics and applications of validated genetically engineered mouse mo...


Posttranscriptional gene regulation in the biology and virulence of Candida albicans
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cellular Microbiology)


TALEN-Mediated Homologous Recombination Produces Site-Directed DNA Base Change And Herbicide-Resistant Rice
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics Author(s): Ting Li, Bo Liu, Chih Ying Chen, Bing Yang Over the last decades, much endeavor has been made to advance genome editing technology due to its promising role in both basic and synthetic biology. The breakthrough has been made in recent years with the advent of sequence specific endonucleases, especially zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) guided nucleases (e.g., Cas9). In higher eukaryotic organisms, site-directed mutagenesis usually can be achieved through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair to the DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) caused by the exogenously applied ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Microwave assisted direct saponification for the simultaneous determination of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides in shrimp
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): Hugo A.L. Souza, Lilian R.B. Mariutti, Neura Bragagnolo A novel microwave-assisted direct saponification method for the simultaneous determination of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides in shrimp was developed and validated. Optimal saponification conditions, determined by means of an experimental design, were achieved using 500mg of sample and 20mL of 1mol/L KOH ethanol solution for 16min at 45°C at maximum power at 200W and magnetic stirring at 120rpm. Higher extraction of cholesterol oxides in a reduced saponification time (∼75 times) was achieved in comparison with the direct cold saponification method. The new method showed low detection (≤0.57μg/mL) a...


Genetic disorders in primary aldosteronism—Familial and somatic
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): John W. Funder Familial hyperaldosteronism has been with us for 50 years, and somatic mutations responsible for aldosterone producing adenomas for five. This brief review covers advancement in each of these genetic bases of primary aldosteronism over these very different time scales, focusing on diagnosis, management and unanswered questions. Given the increasing clinical recognition of primary aldosteronism as public health issue, given its heightened risk profile and the availability of targeted surgical/medical treatment, many of the current questions posed may be answered over the next five years. (Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biol...


Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the North-West region of Russia: a cross-sectional study
This study showed high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in adults and adolescent population from North-West region of Russia, and an association of low serum 25(OH)D level with female gender, obesity and low fish products diet. (Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)


A microwave antigen retrieval method using two heating steps for enhanced immunostaining on aldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections
In conclusion, the conventional protocol could be supplemented with a second microwave heating step to improve the expression of antigens that do not respond well to the conventional method. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)


Low nitrate retention capacity in calcareous soil under woodland in the karst region of southwestern China
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 97 Author(s): Tongbin Zhu, Siman Zeng, Hanlian Qin, Kexin Zhou, Hui Yang, Funing Lan, Fen Huang, Jinhua Cao, Christoph Müller A 15N-tracing study was conducted to investigate the gross N transformation rates involved in the production and consumption of NH4 + and NO3 − in karst region soils (a calcareous and a red soil) from southwest China under woodland. The gross mineralization rate of organic N to NH4 + was much lower in calcareous soil (3.71 mg N kg−1 d−1) than in red soil (5.57 mg N kg−1 d−1), while the total gross nitrification rate was significantly higher in calcareous soil (5.80 mg N kg−1 d−1) than in red soil (0.70 mg N kg−1 d−1). Microbial NO3 − immobilization ac...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Stabilization of pre‐optimized multicolor antibody cocktails for flow cytometry applications
Conclusions: The approach we describe here, the Lyotube, facilitates the improvement and implementation of standardization measures in clinical settings and in multi‐site studies, a useful tool which can also be applied to determining the efficacy and safety of candidate therapeutics and vaccines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry)


The roles of the hybrid cluster protein, Hcp and its reductase, Hcr, in high affinity nitric oxide reduction that protects anaerobic cultures of Escherichia coli against nitrosative stress
Summary The hybrid cluster protein, Hcp, contains a 4Fe‐2S‐2O iron‐sulfur‐oxygen cluster that is currently considered to be unique in biology. It protects various bacteria from nitrosative stress, but the mechanism is unknown. We demonstrate that the Escherichia coli Hcp is a high affinity nitric oxide (NO) reductase that is the major enzyme for reducing NO stoichiometrically to N2O under physiologically relevant conditions. Deletion of hcp results in extreme sensitivity to NO during anaerobic growth and inactivation of the iron‐sulfur proteins, aconitase and fumarase, by accumulated cytoplasmic NO. Site directed mutagenesis revealed an essential role in NO reduction for the conserved glutamate 492 that coordinates the hybrid cluster. The second gene of the hcp‐hcr operon encod...


CD36 actions in the Heart: lipids, calcium, inflammation, repair and more?
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids Author(s): Nada A. Abumrad, Ira J. Goldberg CD36 is a multifunctional immuno-metabolic receptor with many ligands. One of its physiological functions in the heart is the high-affinity uptake of long-chain fatty acids (FAs) from albumin and triglyceride rich lipoproteins. CD36 deletion markedly reduces myocardial FA uptake in rodents and humans. The protein is expressed on endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes and at both sites is likely to contribute to FA uptake by the myocardium. CD36 also transduces intracellular signaling events that influence how the FA is utilized and mediate metabolic effects of FA in the heart. CD36 mediated signaling regulates AMPK ...


Meiotic Recombination and the Crossover Assurance Checkpoint in Caenorhabditis elegans
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell &amp; Developmental Biology Author(s): Zhouliang Yu, Yumi Kim, Abby F. Dernburg During meiotic prophase, chromosomes pair and synapse with their homologs and undergo programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation to initiate meiotic recombination. These DSBs are processed to generate a limited number of crossover recombination products on each chromosome, which are essential to ensure faithful segregation of homologous chromosomes. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has served as an excellent model organism to investigate the mechanisms that drive and coordinate these chromosome dynamics during meiosis. Here we focus on our current understanding of the regulation of DSB induction in C. elegans. We also r...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Telocytes in their context with other intercellular communication agents
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell &amp; Developmental Biology Author(s): Lawrence Edelstein, Kjell Fuxe, Michael Levin, Bogdan O. Popescu, John Smythies The past decade has borne witness to an explosion in our understanding of the fundamental complexities of intercellular communication. Previously, the field was solely defined by the simple exchange of endocrine, autocrine and epicrine agents. Then it was discovered that cells possess an elaborate system of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, which carry a vast array of small and large molecules (including many epigenetic agents such as a variety RNAs and DNA), as well as large organelles that modulate almost every aspect of cellular function. In addition, it was thought that electr...


Regulation of angiogenesis through the efficient delivery of microRNAs into endothelial cells using polyamine-coated carbon nanotubes
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine Author(s): Andrea Masotti, Mark R. Miller, Antonella Celluzzi, Lorraine Rose, Federico Micciulla, Patrick W.F. Hadoke, Stefano Bellucci, Andrea Caporali MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level and represent an attractive therapeutic target for a wide range of diseases. Here, we report a novel strategy for delivering miRNAs to endothelial cells (ECs) to regulate angiogenesis, using polymer functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs were coated with two different polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) or polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM), followed by conjugation of miR-503 oligonucleotides as recognized regulators of angiogenesis. We de...


Pulmonary Delivery of Cationic Gold Nanoparticles Boost Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Proliferation
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine Author(s): Emilie Seydoux, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Rebecca A.M. Blom, Philip A. Stumbles, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen Rutishauser, Fabian Blank, Christophe von Garnier To address how surface charge affects the fate of potential nanocarriers in the lung, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with polyvinyl alcohol containing either positively (NH2) or negatively (COOH) charged functional groups were intra-nasally instilled in mice, and their uptake by antigen presenting cell populations (APC) in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, trachea, and lung parenchyma, as well as trafficking to the lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs) was assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, CD4+ T...


Effect of Surface-Modified Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONS) on Mast Cell Infiltration: An Acute In vivo Study
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine Author(s): A. Sabareeswaran, E.B. Ansar, P.R. Harikrishna Varma, P.V. Mohanan, T.V. Kumary Extensive use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS) in theranostics prompted us to investigate the acute changes in cell morphology and function following intravenous administration of surface-modified SPIONS in a rat model. Dextran-coated (DEX) and polyethylene glycol-coated (PEG) SPIONS were synthesized, characterized and cytocompatibility was evaluated in vitro. Haematological, histopathological, ultrastructural and oxidative stress analyses were carried out 24h post intravenous administration in vivo. In test groups, SGPT and SGOT enzymes were significantly altered wh...


Inhibition of hepatitis C virus in mouse models by lipidoid nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of siRNA against PRK2
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine Author(s): Jae-Su Moon, Seung-Hoon Lee, Song-Hee Han, Eun-Jung Kim, Hee Cho, Wooseong Lee, Mi-Kyung Kim, Tae-Eun Kim, Hyun-Ji Park, Jin-Kyu Rhee, Seong-Jun Kim, Seung-Woo Cho, Seung Hyun Han, Jong-Won Oh Host-targeting antivirals have an advantage over direct-acting antivirals in that they have a high genetic barrier to resistance. Here, we describe in vivo anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) efficacy of a potent siRNA targeting the protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2), which phosphorylates HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and promotes HCV replication. PRK2-silencing reduced the phosphorylated NS5B level and resulted in inhibition of NS5B RdRp activity to decrease HC...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Risk‐preferring rats make worse decisions and show increased incubation of craving after cocaine self‐administration
Abstract Maladaptive decision‐making may play an integral role in the development and maintenance of an addiction. Substance‐dependent individuals make riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, and these deficits persist during withdrawal and are predictive of relapse. However, it is unclear from clinical studies whether this cognitive impairment is a cause or consequence of drug use. We trained male Long‐Evans rats on the rat Gambling Task, a rodent analogue of the Iowa Gambling Task, to determine how choice preference influenced, and was influenced by, cocaine self‐administration, withdrawal and incubation of craving. Rats that exhibited a preference for the risky, disadvantageous options at baseline were uniquely and adversely affected by cocaine self‐administration. Risky ch...


Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects
This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol‐induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco‐induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women...


Long non-coding RNA TUSC7 acts a molecular sponge for miR-10a and suppresses EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma
In this study, we observed that the expression of TUSC7 was immensely decreased in HCC. Clinically, the lower expression of TUSC7 predicted poorer survival and may be an independent risk factor for HCC patients. Moreover, TUSC7 inhibited cell metastasis, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) through competitively binding miR-10a. Furthermore, we found that TUSC7 could decrease the expression of Eph tyrosine kinase receptor A4 (EphA4), a downstream target of miR-10a as well as an EMT suppressor, through TUSC7-miR-10a-EphA4 axis. Taken together, we demonstrate that TUSC7 suppresses EMT through the TUSC7-miR-10a-EphA4 axis, which may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in HCC. (Source: Tumor Biology)


A Comparative Study on the In Vitro Effects of the DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitor 5-Azacytidine (5-AzaC) in Breast/Mammary Cancer of Different Mammalian Species
This study examines the effects of the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-Azacytidine (5-AzaC) on normal and tumoral mammary cell lines derived from dogs, cats and humans, as proof of concept that small companion animals are useful models of human breast cancer. Our findings show that treatment with 5-AzaC reduces in vitro tumorigenicity in all three species based on growth and invasion assays, mitochondrial activity and susceptibility to apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that the effects of 5-AzaC on gene expression varied not only between the different species but also between different tumoral cell lines within the same species, and confirmed the correlation between loss of methylation in a specific gene promotor region and increased expression of the associated gene using bisulf...


A comprehensive review of the neonatal Fc Receptor and its application in drug delivery
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Pharmacology &amp; Therapeutics Author(s): João Pedro Martins, Patrick J. Kennedy, Hélder A. Santos, Cristina Barrias, Bruno Sarmento Advances in the understanding of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) biology and function have demonstrated that this receptor, primarily identified for the transfer of passive immunity from mother infant, is involved in several biological and immunological processes. In fact, FcRn is responsible for the long half-life of IgG and albumin in the serum, by creating an intracellular protein reservoir, which is protected from lysosomal degradation and, importantly, trafficked across the cell. Such discovery has led researchers to hypothesize the role for this unique receptor in the controlled delivery ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Advancements in zebrafish applications for 21st century toxicology
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Pharmacology &amp; Therapeutics Author(s): Gloria R. Garcia, Pamela D. Noyes, Robert L. Tanguay The zebrafish model is the only available high-throughput vertebrate assessment system, and it is uniquely suited for studies of in vivo cell biology. A sequenced and annotated genome has revealed a large degree of evolutionary conservation in comparison to the human genome. Due to our shared evolutionary history, the anatomical and physiological features of fish are highly homologous to humans, which facilitates studies relevant to human health. In addition, zebrafish provide a very unique vertebrate data stream that allows researchers to anchor hypotheses at the biochemical, genetic, and cellular levels to observations at the str...


Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in congenital hemoglobinopathies using tailored busulphan-based conditioning regimen: single center experience
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only proven curative option for patients with hemoglobinopathies, both thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (SCA). Busulphan-based myeloablative conditioning regimen is the standard of care for HSCT in these patients, although increased treatment-related morbidity, including veno-occlusive disease (VOD), has been demonstrated. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)


Nontoxic Family Stress: Potential Benefits and Underlying Biology
Abstract Exposure to family stressors that are an ordinary part of daily life is essential for healthy development. Most children show a “positive” response when stressful events provoke mild or moderately intense levels of emotional arousal and provide opportunities for recovery. Through processes of habituation and practice, responding to these types of stressors can foster the development of emotion regulation and coping under normative levels of exposure. Parents influence children's opportunities to experience self‐regulation and their psychological responses to stress and thereby shape their preparation to respond to stressors in the future. Different levels of stress exposure are also associated with different patterns of resting activity and responses to stress in the neuroen...


The Biology of Hemodialysis Vascular Access Failure
Semin intervent Radiol 2016; 33: 015-020DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572355Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are essential for patients and clinicians faced with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While this method of vascular access for hemodialysis is preferred to others due to its reduced rate of infection and complications, they are plagued by intimal hyperplasia. The pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia and subsequent thrombosis is brought on by uremia, hypoxia, and shear stress. These forces upregulate inflammatory and proliferative cytokines acting on leukocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and platelets. This activation begins initially with the progression of uremia, which induces platelet dysfunction and primes the body for an inflammatory response. The vasculature subsequently undergoes c...


Effect of P16 status on the quality of life experience during chemoradiation for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer: A sub-study of randomized trial TROG 02.02 (HeadSTART)
Among 861 overall participants in a negative phase III randomized trial of concurrent chemoradiotherapy +/- the hypoxic cell cytotoxic agent tirapazamine, a subset of 200 had oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), known p16 status, and quality of life (QOL) data. A comparison of QOL by p16 status showed that patients with p16+ OPC exhibited better baseline QOL, but a more dramatic QOL drop with aggressive concurrent chemoradiation. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Requirements and Implementation of lung SBRT program in developing countries: Benefits of International Cooperation
International collaboration between our center in Jordan and a leading cancer center in a developed country enabled the successful implementation of a specialized procedure. Stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) allowed the treatment of a patient population who otherwise would have no options. Cooperation in the form of electronic consultation between both institutions still exists to provide peer-review feedback on patient-specific cases when needed. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)


TSPO expression in brain tumours: is TSPO a target for brain tumour imaging?
Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET) alone or in combination with MRI is increasingly assuming a central role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for brain tumours with the aim of addressing tumour heterogeneity, assisting in patient stratification, and contributing to predicting treatment response. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is expressed in high-grade gliomas, while its expression is comparatively low in normal brain. In addition, the evidence of elevated TSPO in neoplastic cells has led to studies investigating TSPO as a transporter of anticancer drugs for brain delivery and a selective target for tumour tissue. The TSPO therefore represents an ideal candidate for molecular imaging studies. Knowledge of the biology of TSPO in normal br...


Mechanisms and challenges in translational stroke research
Translating basic science advances into clinical meaning has been challenging for stroke research. This does not, however, mean that the investigation of basic mechanisms is irrelevant. Translation is difficult because the underlying mechanisms are complex and ill-defined. The original focus on neuroprotection has now evolved into a broader consideration of the role of non-neuronal cells in stroke pathophysiology. The neurovascular unit may provide a conceptual framework within which interactions between neural, glial, and vascular cells comprise a basis for function and dysfunction in the central nervous system. Importantly, these cell&ndash;cell signaling pathways are also biphasic in nature, that is, mechanisms that are deleterious in the acute phase may surprisingly be required for neu...


Adipose tissue hypoxia and insulin resistance
Despite the well-established association of obesity with insulin resistance and inflammation, the underlying mechanisms and sequence of events leading to inflammation and insulin resistance remain unknown. Adipose tissue hypoxia has been proposed as one of the possible key events during the process of fat expansion that leads to adipose tissue dysfunction. The focus of this paper is reviewing the evidence on adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and its relation to insulin resistance. (Source: Journal of Investigative Medicine)


Id: 137: grk2 inhibition reduces post-myocardial infarction cardiac fibroblast mediated adverse remodeling
Conclusions Uncoupling of &beta;-adrenergic signaling in CF via increased GRK2 appears to be a key mechanism of post-MI fibrosis. Targeted inhibition of GRK2 and restoration of b-adrenergic signaling/cAMP production in CF may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent pathological fibrosis and maladaptive remodeling. (Source: Journal of Investigative Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Id: 87: transcription factor creb3l3 is a novel regulator for adipocyte biology and metabolism
The presence of differential metabolic risks between the metabolically-protective subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and the disease-associated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is well established, but the mechanisms that cause these differences are not well understood. Cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3), a previously characterized liver-specific ER-bound transcription factor, was found to be expressed in murine SAT and VAT. In obese human subjects and an obese mouse model, we found that CREB3L3 is downregulated in SAT, but not in VAT. To examine the role of CREB3L3 in adipocyte biology and metabolism, we created a fat-specific CREB3L3 knockout (KO) mouse using the AdipoQ-Cre mouse. To establish a potential role for CREB3L3 in adipocytes, we examined in vitro diff...


Id: 133: single cell gene expression in classical monocytes correlates with treatment response to tnf-alpha inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis
Conclusion These within-cell expression patterns demonstrate biological differences in CL monocytes of RA patients with an IFN-&beta;/&alpha;&gt;1.3, the ratio of type I IFNs previously found to be predictive of non-response to anti-TNF-&alpha; therapy. Differentiation by gene expression among the response/non-response patient groups is lost when comparing gene expression in single NCL monocytes and single mixed population monocytes (CL and NCL), suggesting that further study of CL monocytes will likely illuminate molecular differences that determine treatment response to TNF-&alpha; inhibition in RA. This work will help to develop a more individualized approach to therapy in RA based upon the underlying biology of disease in a given patient. (Source: Journal of Investigative Medicine)


Mitochondrial proteome rhythm [Cell Biology]
Life on our planet evolved under predictable light:dark cycles and dependent rhythms of nutrient availability. Accordingly, a vast majority of living organisms, ranging from archaea to humans, have adopted molecular mechanisms to anticipate and respond to daily metabolic rhythms. Central to this timing mechanism in mammals is a cell-autonomous molecular... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Cardiac myosin-binding protein C [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The cardiac isoform of myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is a sarcomeric protein that is believed to be a key regulator of myocardial contractility (review in ref. 1). Although cMyBP-C was thought for many years to be a structural scaffold or template for the cardiac thick filament, there is now considerable... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Actomyosin drives membrane organization in vitro [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


OCP photoprotects by penetration into the PBS [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
In cyanobacteria, photoprotection from overexcitation of photochemical centers can be obtained by excitation energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS), the cyanobacterial antenna, induced by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP). A single photoactivated OCP bound to the core of the PBS affords almost total energy dissipation. The precise... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Population-based 3D genome structure analysis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Conformation capture technologies (e.g., Hi-C) chart physical interactions between chromatin regions on a genome-wide scale. However, the structural variability of the genome between cells poses a great challenge to interpreting ensemble-averaged Hi-C data, particularly for long-range and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we present a probabilistic approach for deconvoluting Hi-C data into... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Daily oscillation in mitochondrial proteome [Cell Biology]
Mitochondria are major suppliers of cellular energy through nutrients oxidation. Little is known about the mechanisms that enable mitochondria to cope with changes in nutrient supply and energy demand that naturally occur throughout the day. To address this question, we applied MS-based quantitative proteomics on isolated mitochondria from mice killed... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Ire1p modulates Syt1p phosphorylation [Cell Biology]
ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases are key regulators of membrane traffic at the Golgi complex. In yeast, Arf guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) Syt1p activates Arf-like protein Arl1p, which was accompanied by accumulation of golgin Imh1p at late Golgi, but whether and how this function of Syt1p is regulated remains unclear.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Domain-derived myogenic genome topology [Cell Biology]
The linear distribution of genes across chromosomes and the spatial localization of genes within the nucleus are related to their transcriptional regulation. The mechanistic consequences of linear gene order, and how it may relate to the functional output of genome organization, remain to be fully resolved, however. Here we tested... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Oscillations in the E. coli NO{middle dot} response network [Systems Biology]
The virulence of many pathogens depends upon their ability to cope with immune-generated nitric oxide (NO·). In Escherichia coli, the major NO· detoxification systems are Hmp, an NO· dioxygenase (NOD), and NorV, an NO· reductase (NOR). It is well established that Hmp is the dominant system under aerobic conditions, whereas... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Energy landscape in protein folding and unfolding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We use 1H NMR to probe the energy landscape in the protein folding and unfolding process. Using the scheme ⇄ reversible unfolded (intermediate) → irreversible unfolded (denatured) state, we study the thermal denaturation of hydrated lysozyme that occurs when the temperature is increased. Using thermal cycles in the range 295 (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


N-terminal cardiac MyBP-C structural dynamics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We have used the site-directed spectroscopies of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) and double electron–electron resonance (DEER), combined with complementary molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to resolve the structure and dynamics of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C), focusing on the N-terminal region. The results have implications for the role of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Phosphorylation and calcium tune cMyBP-C function [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
During each heartbeat, cardiac contractility results from calcium-activated sliding of actin thin filaments toward the centers of myosin thick filaments to shorten cellular length. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is a component of the thick filament that appears to tune these mechanochemical interactions by its N-terminal domains transiently interacting with... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Subunit a structures from V/A- and V-ATPases [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus is similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Noise-driven growth rate gain [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Cellular populations in both nature and the laboratory are composed of phenotypically heterogeneous individuals that compete with each other resulting in complex population dynamics. Predicting population growth characteristics based on knowledge of heterogeneous single-cell dynamics remains challenging. By observing groups of cells for hundreds of generations at single-cell resolution, we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Atomic resolution probe of thin filament [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Calcium binding and dissociation within the cardiac thin filament (CTF) is a fundamental regulator of normal contraction and relaxation. Although the disruption of this complex, allosterically mediated process has long been implicated in human disease, the precise atomic-level mechanisms remain opaque, greatly hampering the development of novel targeted therapies. To... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Folding {phi}-values from the transition path ensemble [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
All-atom molecular dynamics simulations now allow us to create movies of proteins folding and unfolding. However, it is difficult to assess the accuracy of the folding mechanisms observed because experiments cannot yet directly resolve events occurring along the transition paths between unfolded and folded states. Protein folding ϕ-values provide residue-resolved... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Allosteric regulation through collective motion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Many biological processes depend on allosteric communication between different parts of a protein, but the role of internal protein motion in propagating signals through the structure remains largely unknown. Through an experimental and computational analysis of the ground state dynamics in ubiquitin, we identify a collective global motion that is... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Structural insights into recombination mediation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The UvsY recombination mediator protein is critical for efficient homologous recombination in bacteriophage T4 and is the functional analog of the eukaryotic Rad52 protein. During T4 homologous recombination, the UvsX recombinase has to compete with the prebound gp32 single-stranded binding protein for DNA-binding sites and UvsY stimulates this filament nucleation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Single molecule imaging of human mismatch repair [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Mismatch repair (MMR) is activated by evolutionarily conserved MutS homologs (MSH) and MutL homologs (MLH/PMS). MSH recognizes mismatched nucleotides and form extremely stable sliding clamps that may be bound by MLH/PMS to ultimately authorize strand-specific excision starting at a distant 3′- or 5′-DNA scission. The mechanical processes associated with a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Cytokinesis pathways in T. brucei [Cell Biology]
Cytokinesis in Trypanosoma brucei, an early branching protozoan, occurs along its longitudinal axis uni-directionally from the anterior tip of the new flagellum attachment zone filament toward the cell’s posterior end. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we report that cytokinesis in T. brucei is regulated by a concerted action... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse islet cells [Cell Biology]
This study provides an assessment of the Fluidigm C1 platform for RNA sequencing of single mouse pancreatic islet cells. The system combines microfluidic technology and nanoliter-scale reactions. We sequenced 622 cells, allowing identification of 341 islet cells with high-quality gene expression profiles. The cells clustered into populations of α-cells (5%),... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


13-LOX and leaf senescence [Plant Biology]
Leaf senescence is the terminal stage in the development of perennial plants. Massive physiological changes occur that lead to the shut down of photosynthesis and a cessation of growth. Leaf senescence involves the selective destruction of the chloroplast as the site of photosynthesis. Here, we show that 13-lipoxygenase (13-LOX) accomplishes... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


NbCSPR required for bacterial perception [Plant Biology]
Plants use receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are typical of whole classes of microbes. After ligand perception, many leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing PRRs interact with the LRR-RK BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). BAK1 is thus expected to interact... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Cell-to-cell movement of mitochondria in plants [Plant Biology]
We report cell-to-cell movement of mitochondria through a graft junction. Mitochondrial movement was discovered in an experiment designed to select for chloroplast transfer from Nicotiana sylvestris into Nicotiana tabacum cells. The alloplasmic N. tabacum line we used carries Nicotiana undulata cytoplasmic genomes, and its flowers are male sterile due to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


In vivo enzyme maximal rates match kcat values [Systems Biology]
Turnover numbers, also known as kcat values, are fundamental properties of enzymes. However, kcat data are scarce and measured in vitro, thus may not faithfully represent the in vivo situation. A basic question that awaits elucidation is: how representative are kcat values for the maximal catalytic rates of enzymes in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Correction: A Voltage-Based STDP Rule Combined with Fast BCM-Like Metaplasticity Accounts for LTP and Concurrent "Heterosynaptic" LTD in the Dentate Gyrus In Vivo
by The PLOS Computational Biology Staff (Source: PLoS Computational Biology)


Noise Expands the Response Range of the Bacillus subtilis Competence Circuit
by Andrew Mugler, Mark Kittisopikul, Luke Hayden, Jintao Liu, Chris H. Wiggins, Gürol M. Süel, Aleksandra M. Walczak Gene regulatory circuits must contend with intrinsic noise that arises due to finite numbers of proteins. While some circuits act to reduce this noise, others appear to exploit it. A striking example is the competence circuit in Bacillus subtilis, which exhibits much larger noise in the duration of its competence events than a synthetically constructed analog that performs the same function. Here, using stochastic modeling and fluorescence microscopy, we show that this larger noise allows cells to exit terminal phenotypic states, which expands the range of stress levels to which cells are responsive and leads to phenotypic heterogeneity at the population level. This is an...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Inhibition as a Binary Switch for Excitatory Plasticity in Pyramidal Neurons
by Katharina A. Wilmes, Henning Sprekeler, Susanne Schreiber Synaptic plasticity is thought to induce memory traces in the brain that are the foundation of learning. To ensure the stability of these traces in the presence of further learning, however, a regulation of plasticity appears beneficial. Here, we take up the recent suggestion that dendritic inhibition can switch plasticity of excitatory synapses on and off by gating backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) and calcium spikes, i.e., by gating the coincidence signals required for Hebbian forms of plasticity. We analyze temporal and spatial constraints of such a gating and investigate whether it is possible to suppress bAPs without a simultaneous annihilation of the forward-directed information flow via excitatory postsynaptic pote...


Application of Rigidity Theory to the Thermostabilization of Lipase A from Bacillus subtilis
by Prakash Chandra Rathi, Alexander Fulton, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Holger Gohlke Protein thermostability is a crucial factor for biotechnological enzyme applications. Protein engineering studies aimed at improving thermostability have successfully applied both directed evolution and rational design. However, for rational approaches, the major challenge remains the prediction of mutation sites and optimal amino acid substitutions. Recently, we showed that such mutation sites can be identified as structural weak spots by rigidity theory-based thermal unfolding simulations of proteins. Here, we describe and validate a unique, ensemble-based, yet highly efficient strategy to predict optimal amino acid substitutions at structural weak spots for improving a protein’s thermostability. For this, we...


Endophytic Cryphonectriaceae on native Myrtales: possible origin of Chrysoporthe canker on plantation-grown Eucalyptus
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Fungal Biology Author(s): S.N.D. Mausse-Sitoe, C. Rodas, M.J. Wingfield, S.F. Chen, J. Roux Chrysoporthe austroafricana (Cryphonectriaceae) is a damaging canker pathogen on Eucalyptus species in Southern Africa. Recent studies have shown that the fungus occurs on native Syzygium species and that it has apparently undergone a host range expansion from these native trees to infect non-native Eucalyptus. The aim of this study was to consider whether C. austroafricana and other Cryphonectriaceae might exist as endophytes in native Myrtaceae, providing a source of inoculum to infect non-native Myrtales. Healthy branches were collected from Myrtaceae in Mozambique, incubated in florist foam, allowed to dry gradually and monitored for...


Decoding Gαq signaling
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Life Sciences Author(s): Irene Litosch Gαq signals with phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) to modify cell behavior in response to an agonist-bound GPCR. While the fundamental steps which prime Gαq to interact with PLC-β have been identified, questions remain concerning signal strength with PLC-β and other effectors. Gαq is generally viewed to function as a simple ON and OFF switch for its effector, dependent on the binding of GTP or GDP. However, Gαq does not have a single effector, Gαq has many different effectors. Furthermore, select effectors also regulate Gαq activity. PLC-β is a lipase and a GTPase activating protein (GAP) selective for Gαq. The contribution of G protein regulating activity to signal amplitude remains uncle...


Establishment of a 3D-dynamic osteoblasts–osteoclasts co-culture model to simulate the jawbone microenvironment in vitro
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Life Sciences Author(s): Letizia Penolazzi, Andrea Lolli, Luca Sardelli, Marco Angelozzi, Elisabetta Lambertini, Leonardo Trombelli, Francesca Ciarpella, RenataVecchiatini, Roberta Piva Aims We aimed to establish a 3D osteoblasts/osteoclasts co-culture system requiring limited amounts of human primary cells and useful as platform to 1. recapitulate an “oral bone microenvironment” in healthy or pathological condition, and 2. produce potential implantable cell constructs for regeneration of jawbone which can be negatively affected by bisphosphonates (BPs). Main methods Osteoblasts from normal bone chips (hOBs) or from jawbone of patients taking BPs (hnOBs) were co-cultured with monocytes (hMCs) either in static (3D-C) or...


Does mineralocorticoid receptor play a vital role in the development of depressive disorder?
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Life Sciences Author(s): Jiao Chen, Zhen-zhen Wang, Shuai Zhang, Wei Zuo, Nai-hong Chen Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying this disease remain unclear. Stress, a disposing factor in the development of depression, leads to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and glucocorticoids release. Glucocorticoids at physiological concentrations activate two types of steroid receptors including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). During the past decades, lots of studies have confirmed the role of GR in depression. An increasing number of studies, in recent years, indicate that abnormal function of MR is also a c...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications of glucosamine as a potential multifunctional therapeutic agent
This article will also examine safety profile and adverse effects of glucosamine in human. Graphical abstract (Source: Life Sciences)


Sex- and dose-dependent effects of calcium ion irradiation on behavioral performance of B6D2F1 mice during contextual fear conditioning training
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Life Sciences in Space Research Author(s): Jacob Raber, Sydney Weber, Amy Kronenberg, Mitchell S. Turker The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact behavioral and cognitive performance. The relationship between the dose and the ionization density of the various types of charged particles (expressed as linear energy transfer or LET), and cognitive performance is complex. In our earlier work, whole body exposure to 28Si ions (263 MeV/n, LET = 78   k e V / μ m ; 1.6 Gy) affected contextual fear memory in C57BL/6J x DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation but this was not the case following exposure to 48Ti ions (1 GeV/n, LET = 107   k e V / μ m ; 0.2 or 0.4 Gy). As an...


Deconvoluting the relationships between autophagy and metastasis for potential cancer therapy
Abstract Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosome-dependent degradation process that may digest some long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. As an essential homeostasis maintaining system in normal cells, autophagy plays a key role in several pathological settings, especially cancer. Metastasis, known as a crucial hallmark of cancer progression, is the primary cause of cancer lethality. The role of autophagy in metastasis is quite complex as supportive evidence has indicated both pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic functions of autophagy. Autophagy can inhibit metastasis by restricting necrosis and mediating autophagic cell death, whereas it may also promote metastasis by enhancing cancer cell fitness in response to stress. Moreover, the function of autophagy is context- and st...


A potential structural switch for regulating DNA-binding by TEAD transcription factors
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Dong-Sun Lee, Clemens Vonrhein, Diana Albarado, C.S. Raman, Sudha Veeraraghavan TEA domain transcription factors (TEAD) are essential for normal development of eukaryotes and are the downstream effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. Whereas our earlier work established the three-dimensional structure of the highly conserved DNA binding domain using solution NMR spectroscopy, the structural-basis for regulating the DNA binding activity remains unknown. Here, we present the X-ray crystallographic structure and activity of a TEA domain mutant containing a truncated L1 loop, ΔL1 TEAD DBD. Unexpectedly, the three-dimensional structure of the ΔL1 TEAD DBD reveals a helix-swapped hom...


Peptides comprised of alternating L- and D- Amino acids inhibit amyloidogenesis in Three Distinct Amyloid Systems independent of sequence
We present experimental characterization (CD and FTIR) of 7 peptides designed to accomplish this. In addition, we measured their ability to inhibit aggregation in three unrelated amyloid species: Aβ42, transthyretin, and human islet amylin polypeptide. We found that a hairpin peptide featuring alternating L- and D-amino acids, independent of sequence, is sufficient for conferring α-sheet structure and inhibition of aggregation. Additionally, we show a correlation between α-sheet structural stability and inhibitory activity. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Molecular Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Structural basis of lipid targeting and destruction by the type V secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Paulo Vinicius da Mata Madeira, Samira Zouhir, Pauline Basso, David Neves, Aurélie Laubier, Richard Salacha, Sophie Bleves, Eric Faudry, Carlos Contreras-Martel, Andréa Dessen The type V secretion system (T5SS) is a macromolecular machine employed by a number of bacteria to secrete virulence factors into the environment. The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs the newly described type Vd secretion system to secrete a soluble variant of PlpD, a lipase of the patatin-like family synthesized as a single macromolecule that also carries a POTRA domain and a 16-stranded β-barrel. Here we report the crystal structure of the secreted form of PlpD in its biologically active state...


Multiple myeloma in the marrow: pathogenesis and treatments
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy resulting in osteolytic lesions and fractures. In the disease state, bone healing is limited owing to increased osteoclastic and decreased osteoblastic activity, as well as an MM‐induced forward‐feedback cycle where bone‐embedded growth factors further enhance tumor progression as bone is resorbed. Recent work on somatic mutation in MM tumors has provided insight into cytogenetic changes associated with this disease; the initiating driver mutations causing MM are diverse because of the complexity and multitude of mutations inherent in MM tumor cells. This manuscript provides an overview of MM pathogenesis by summarizing cytogenic changes related to oncogenes and tumor suppressors associated with MM, reviewing risk factors, and describing t...


Liposomal prednisolone promotes macrophage lipotoxicity in experimental atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven inflammatory disease, for which nanomedicinal interventions are under evaluation. Previously, we showed that liposomal nanoparticles loaded with prednisolone (LN-PLP) accumulated in plaque macrophages, however, induced proatherogenic effects in patients. Here, we confirmed in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr −/−) mice that LN-PLP accumulates in plaque macrophages. Next, we found that LN-PLP infusions at 10mg/kg for 2 weeks enhanced monocyte recruitment to plaques. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Non-invasive and label-free detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using saliva surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis
Reported here is the application of silver nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a label-free, non-invasive technique for detection of oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) using saliva and desquamated oral cells. A total of 180 SERS spectra were acquired from saliva and 120 SERS spectra from oral cells collected from normal healthy individuals and from confirmed oropharyngeal cancer patients. Notable biochemical peaks in the SERS spectra were tentatively assigned to various components. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Direct Detection of Malaria Infected Red Blood Cells by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of normal red blood cells (RBCs) and Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBCs) at different post invasion time were obtained based on silver nanorod array substrates. Distinct spectral differences were observed due to the cell membrane modification of RBCs during malaria infection. The SERS spectra of ring stage iRBCs had a characteristic Raman peak at Δv = 1599 cm−1 as compared to those of normal RBCs, while the trophozoite and schizoid stages had identical SERS spectra with a characteristic peak at Δv = 723 cm−1, which is significantly different from ring stage iRBCs, consistent with ongoing modification of the iRBC membrane. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Adsorbed plasma proteins modulate the effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes on neutrophils in blood.
Proteins adsorbed on a surface may affect the interaction of this surface with cells. Here, we studied the binding of human serum albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) to PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) and evaluated the impact of PEG-SWCNT treated by these proteins on neutrophils in whole blood samples. Measurements of adsorption parameters revealed tight binding of proteins to PEG-SWCNTs. AFM was employed to directly observe protein binding to side walls of PEG-SWCNTs. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Hepatitis B virus genotype A: design of reference sequences for sub-genotypes
In conclusion, these newly established reference sequences can provide suitable reference standards for studies on the molecular biology and virology of HBV genotype A. (Source: Virus Genes)


Glycobiology simplified: diverse roles of glycan recognition in inflammation.
Authors: Schnaar RL Abstract Glycans and complementary glycan-binding proteins are essential components in the language of cell-cell interactions in immunity. The study of glycan function is the purview of glycobiology, which has often been presented as an unusually complex discipline. In fact, the human glycome, composed of all of its glycans, is built primarily from only 9 building blocks that are combined by enzymes (writers) with specific and limited biosynthetic capabilities into a tractable and increasingly accessible number of potential glycan patterns that are functionally read by several dozen human glycan-binding proteins (readers). Nowhere is the importance of glycan recognition better understood than in infection and immunity, and knowledge in this area has already led ...


MGMT in colorectal cancer: a promising component of personalized treatment
In conclusion, MGMT was an important in vitro predictor of TMZ activity in CRC. The rate of MGMT protein loss was low in metastatic CRC patients from China, and MGMT might be more commonly lost in signet ring cell carcinoma. The MGMT status at primary and metastatic sites was consistent, but the power of concordance was poor. Further study into these topics is warranted. (Source: Tumor Biology)


Molecular identification of livestock breeds: a tool for modern conservation biology.
Authors: Yaro M, Munyard KA, Stear MJ, Groth DM Abstract Global livestock genetic diversity includes all of the species, breeds and strains of domestic animals, and their variations. Although a recent census indicated that there were 40 species and over 8000 breeds of domestic animals; for the purpose of conservation biology the diversity between and within breeds rather than species is regarded to be of crucial importance. This domestic animal genetic diversity has developed through three main evolutionary events, from speciation (about 3 million years ago) through domestication (about 12000 years ago) to specialised breeding (starting about 200 years ago). These events and their impacts on global animal genetic resources have been well documented in the literature. The key ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Phytoplankton composition of the water and gastrointestinal tract of the mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann, 1921) from São Francisco river (Bahia, Brazil).
Authors: Alves T, Lima P, Lima GM, Cunha MC, Ferreira S, Domingues B, Machado J Abstract The knowledge on diet composition of the freshwater mussel Diplodon enno (Ortmann) would aid in its culture and propagation allowing, this way, the replacement of natural endangered populations in Brazil. Microalgae are the main food source for captive mussels and unionids have displayed an ability to sort algae based on the cellular characteristics prior to ingestion. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the phytoplankton composition of the water from and of the gastrointestinal contents of the mussel D. enno, as an initial step for development of a suitable rearing diet. Therefore, water samples and bivalve specimens were collected from S. Francisco River, city of Paulo Afonso...


A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) (Carnivora, Canidae) occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil.
We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil. PMID: 27007505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Biol)


Age-related changes in photosensitive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells correlate with circadian rhythm impairments in sighted and blind rats.
Authors: Lax P, Esquiva G, Fuentes-Broto L, Segura F, Sánchez-Cano A, Cuenca N, Pinilla I Abstract The melanopsin system consists of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells containing the photopigment melanopsin (mRGCs). These mRGCs mediate several non-image-forming visual functions, including light entrainment of circadian rhythms. Here we evaluate age-related alterations of the melanopsin system and circadian rhythms in P23H line 1 (P23H-1) rats, a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In homozygous P23H-1 rats and wild-type control rats from the same genetic background (Sprague-Dawley), body temperature and locomotor activity were continuously monitored at 10-min intervals for 7 days, once every 4-5 weeks, between 2 and 24 months of age, using a telemetry trans...


2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?
Authors: Rosa JP, Rodrigues DF, Silva A, Simim MA, Costa VT, Noce F, de Mello MT Abstract The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by c...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Lithium and bipolar disorder: Impacts from molecular to behavioural circadian rhythms.
Authors: Moreira J, Geoffroy PA Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and common psychiatric disorder. BD pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and relapses are associated with numerous circadian rhythm abnormalities. Lithium (Li) is the first-line treatment in BD, and its therapeutic action has been related to its ability to alter circadian rhythms. We systematically searched the PubMed database until January 2016, aiming to critically examine published studies investigating direct and indirect effects of Li on circadian rhythms. The results, from the 95 retained studies, indicated that Li: acts directly on the molecular clocks; delays the phase of sleep-wakefulness rhythms and the peak elevation of diurnal cycle body temperature; reduces the amplitude and shortens the durati...


Sleep and cancer: Synthesis of experimental data and meta-analyses of cancer incidence among some 1 500 000 study individuals in 13 countries.
Authors: Erren TC, Morfeld P, Foster RG, Reiter RJ, Groß JV, Westermann IK Abstract Sleep and its impact on physiology and pathophysiology are researched at an accelerating pace and from many different angles. Experiments provide evidence for chronobiologically plausible links between chronodisruption and sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD), on the one hand, and the development of cancer, on the other. Epidemiological evidence from cancer incidence among some 1 500 000 study individuals in 13 countries regarding associations with sleep duration, napping or "poor sleep" is variable and inconclusive. Combined adjusted relative risks (meta-RRs) for female breast cancer, based on heterogeneous data, were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.97-1.06). Meta-RRs for cancers of the colorectum and of ...


Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications.
Authors: O'Shea T, Bamber J, Fontanarosa D, van der Meer S, Verhaegen F, Harris E Abstract Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Pa...


Clinical commissioning of an in vivo range verification system for prostate cancer treatment with anterior and anterior oblique proton beams.
Authors: Hoesl M, Deepak S, Moteabbed M, Jassens G, Orban J, Park YK, Parodi K, Bentefour EH, Lu HM Abstract The purpose of this work is the clinical commissioning of a recently developed in vivo range verification system (IRVS) for treatment of prostate cancer by anterior and anterior oblique proton beams. The IRVS is designed to perform a complete workflow for pre-treatment range verification and adjustment. It contains specifically designed dosimetry and electronic hardware and a specific software for workflow control with database connection to the treatment and imaging systems. An essential part of the IRVS system is an array of Si-diode detectors, designed to be mounted to the endorectal water balloon routinely used for prostate immobilization. The diodes can measure dose rat...


A comparison of direct and iterative finite element inversion techniques in dynamic elastography.
Authors: Honarvar M, Rohling R, Salcudean SE Abstract As part of tissue elasticity imaging or elastography, an inverse problem needs to be solved to find the elasticity distribution from the measured displacements. The finite element method (FEM) is a common method for solving the inverse problem in dynamic elastography. This problem has been solved with both direct and iterative FEM schemes. Each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages which are examined in this paper. Choosing the data resolution and the excitation frequency are critical for achieving the best estimation of the tissue elasticity in FEM methods. In this paper we investigate the performance of both direct and iterative FEMs for different ranges of excitation frequency. A new form of iterative meth...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


A Triad of Telomerase, Androgen Receptor and Early Growth Response 1 in Prostate Cancer Cells.
Authors: Jacob S, Nayak S, Kakar R, Chaudhari UK, Joshi D, Vundinti BR, Fernandes G, Barai RS, Kholkute SD, Sachdeva G Abstract Telomerase activation is one of the key mechanisms that allow cells to bypass replicative senescence. Telomerase activity is primarily regulated at the level of transcription of its catalytic unit- hTERT. Prostate cancer (PCa), akin to other cancers, is characterized by high telomerase activity. Existing data suggest that hTERT expression and telomerase activity are positively regulated by androgenic stimuli in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) cells. A part of the present study reaffirmed this by demonstrating a decline in the hTERT expression and telomerase activity on "loss of AR" in ADPC cells. The study further addressed two unresolved queries...


Triptolide mitigates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibition of axis of alveolar macrophages-NOXes-ROS-myofibroblasts.
CONCLUSIONS: Our work demonstrated that the anti-fibrotic effect of TPL on IR-induced pulmonary fibrosis was related to its inhibition on the axis of alveolar macrophages-NOXes-ROS-myofibroblasts. PMID: 27003327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy)


Myeloma cell dynamics in response to treatment supports a model of hierarchical differentiation and clonal evolution.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical data, together with mathematical modeling, suggest that bortezomib-based therapy exerts a selection pressure on myeloma cells that can shape the disease phenotype, thereby generating further inter-patient variability. This model may be a useful tool for improving our understanding of disease biology and the response to chemotherapy regimens. PMID: 27006493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)


Leukemic stem cell quantification in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients predicts response to nilotinib therapy.
CONCLUSION: The proportion of LSCs at diagnosis, as analyzed by two independent methodologies, reflects the biology of the disease and appeared as a prognostic and response-predictive marker in CML patients subjected to first-line nilotinib therapy. PMID: 27006491 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)


Applications of microbial cytochrome P450 enzymes in biotechnology and synthetic biology.
This article reviews recent research on the application of wild-type and engineered P450s in the production of important chemicals, including pharmaceuticals and drug metabolites, steroids and antibiotics. In addition, the properties of unusual members of the P450 superfamily that do not follow the canonical P450 catalytic pathway are described. PMID: 27015292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Catalytic strategies of the non-heme iron dependent oxygenases and their roles in plant biology.
Authors: White MD, Flashman E Abstract Non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases catalyse the incorporation of O2 into a wide range of biological molecules and use diverse strategies to activate their substrates. Recent kinetic studies, including in crystallo, have provided experimental support for some of the intermediates used by different subclasses of this enzyme family. Plant non-heme iron-dependent oxygenases have diverse and important biological roles, including in growth signalling, stress responses and secondary metabolism. Recently identified roles include in strigolactone biosynthesis, O-demethylation in morphine biosynthesis and regulating the stability of hypoxia-responsive transcription factors. We discuss current structural and mechanistic understanding of plant non-heme ir...


Protein quality control in the nucleus.
Authors: Jones RD, Gardner RG Abstract The nucleus is the repository for the eukaryotic cell's genetic blueprint, which must be protected from harm to ensure survival. Multiple quality control (QC) pathways operate in the nucleus to maintain the integrity of the DNA, the fidelity of the DNA code during replication, its transcription into mRNA, and the functional structure of the proteins that are required for DNA maintenance, mRNA transcription, and other important nuclear processes. Although we understand a great deal about DNA and RNA QC mechanisms, we know far less about nuclear protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms despite that fact that many human diseases are causally linked to protein misfolding in the nucleus. In this review, we discuss what is known about nuclear PQC an...


The potential function of microRNA in chordomas.
This study uncovered the potential of miR-31, miR-140-3p, miR-148a, and miR-222-3p to be key molecules in the cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis in chordomas, as well as initiation, differentiation, and progression. PMID: 27016303 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Gene)


Cuba-U.S. Thaw Should Ease Scientific Collaborations
Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology researcher Eduardo Inigo-Elias, a veteran of efforts to work withi Cuban researchers, talks about what improved relations between the U.S. and Cuba could mean for... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)


Cuba–U.S. Thaw Should Ease Scientific Collaborations
Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology researcher Eduardo Inigo-Elias, a veteran of efforts to work with&nbsp;Cuban researchers, talks about what improved relations between the U.S. and Cuba could mean... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Systems biology analysis of hepatitis C virus infection reveals the role of copy number increases in regions of chromosome 1q in hepatocellular carcinoma metabolism
Mol. BioSyst., 2016, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C5MB00827A, PaperIbrahim E. Elsemman, Adil Mardinoglu, Saeed Shoaie, Taysir H Soliman, Jens NielsenHepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide healthcare problem; however, traditional treatment methods have failed to cure all patients, and HCV has developed resistance to new drugs. Systems biology-based...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Molecular Biosystems)


Appropriators Consider NSF's Budget Request for FY 2017
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is unlikely to see a proposed $536.5 million increase next year, if comments during a recent hearing are any indication. The House Appropriations Committee began consideration of NSF&#8217;s budget request for fiscal year 2017 on 16 March 2016. Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Subcommittee Chairman John Culberson (R-TX) said, &#8220;unfortunately the president&#8217;s budget request includes about $400 million in new, unauthorized mandatory funding from a variety of sources that are not going to happen. It is a difficulty that every agency that is presenting their budget this year to the Appropriations Committee face.&#8221; President Obama&#8217;s budget request for FY 2017 included $100.5 million in new discretionary funding, and $4...


House Budget Would Slash Discretionary Funding in Out Years
The budget resolution approved by the House Budget Committee last week would cut $887 billion over the next decade from non-defense programs. Although the spending plan adheres to the $1.07 trillion discretionary funding level lawmakers previously agreed to for 2017, it does so at the expense of future discretionary spending. Overall, this plan would result in an 18.6 percent cut to non-defense programs over a decade. In fiscal year 2018, these programs would lose $44 billion. In the subsequent nine years, funding for non-defense programs would be frozen at $472 billion. By fiscal year (FY) 2026, non-defense spending would be $156 billion below the amount provided for under budget sequestration. Even though Congress reached a deal in the fall of 2015 regarding top line spending for FY 20...


AIBS Seeks Temporary/Interim Editor-in-Chief for BioScience
The American Institute of Biological Sciences seeks applicants for a temporary/interim Editor-in-Chief of its scientific journal, BioScience. It is anticipated that the successful candidate will work as either a contractor or for a stipend that augments an existing academic or research position at a recognized university or other research center. This position has the potential to become a long-term/permanent position. Published monthly, BioScience presents readers with timely and authoritative peer-reviewed scientific Overview and Forum articles, as well as news and analysis, Feature articles, Editorials, Viewpoints, and other non-peer-reviewed content. A highly cited monthly journal, BioScience content is written and edited for accessibility to researchers, educators, and students. A gr...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Submit Your Question for a Presidential Science Debate
What would you like to know about the U.S. presidential candidates&#8217; views on science? A coalition of scientific organizations, which includes AIBS, is soliciting questions to ask the Democratic and Republican nominees. Submit your question about science, technology, health, or environment to the 2016 science debate. You can also vote on submitted questions. Learn more at http://questions.sciencedebate.org/forums/283644-2016-presidential-science-tech-health-and-envir. &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; (Source: Public Policy Reports)


Government Watchdog Recommends More Actions to Protect Native Bees
The federal government has taken steps to enhance the health of native bees, but more should be done, according to the Government Accountability Office. The overseer recommended additional actions by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to combat declines in some populations of bee species. USDA should monitor population trends of wild, native bees. The department currently monitors honey bee colonies that are cared for by beekeepers. Additionally, USDA should evaluate the effectiveness of conservation efforts on private lands to restore bee habitat. The report recommends that EPA develop assessment tools for the risks posed by mixtures of pesticides to pollinators. The agency already evaluates the potential risks of individual pesticide...


NSF, USDA Announce Joint Funding Opportunity on Animal and Plant Phenomics and Microbiomes
The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have established a $6 million joint funding opportunity to support the development of transformative plant and animal phenomics and microbiome technologies. The new grant opportunity seeks to advance our understanding of basic biological mechanisms and principles. Grant proposals for high-risk, high-reward research are sought. Proposals must be compatible within a two-year, $300,000 budget. Learn more at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2016/nsf16058/nsf16058.jsp. &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160; (Source: Public Policy Reports)


Become an Advocate for Science: Join the AIBS Legislative Action Center
Quick, free, easy, effective, impactful! Join the AIBS Legislative Action Center. The Legislative Action Center is a one-stop shop for learning about and influencing science policy. Through the website, users can contact elected officials and sign-up to interact with lawmakers. The website offers tools and resources to inform researchers about recent policy developments. The site also announces opportunities to serve on federal advisory boards and to comment on federal regulations. This new tool is made possible through contributions from the Society for the Study of Evolution, Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, and the Botanical Society of America. AIBS and our partner organizations invite scientists and science educators to become policy advocates today. Simp...


Autism spectrum has no clear cut-off point, research suggests
New study published in Nature Genetics indicates that genes predisposing people to autism could influence social skills in the wider population The same genes involved in predisposing people to autism appear to influence social skills in the wider population, suggesting that the autism spectrum has no clear cut-off point, scientists have discovered.Researchers have previously shown that autism is linked not just to one or two powerful genes, but to the combined effect of many small genetic changes. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Supporting the bioimaging revolution
The rapid rise of high-resolution 3D cellular imaging techniques in biology demands data solutions has meant that developers have had to keep up. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Review, view of future in cancer in adolescents, young adults
A narrative review examines the current status of cancer in adolescents and young adults and offers a view of the future. The article discusses incidence and survival, distribution and biology of disease, special challenges, the price of success, and opportunities for progress. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Chemically Modifying Viruses for Diverse Applications
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00060 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)


Why Nature Chose Selenium
ACS Chemical BiologyDOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00031 (Source: ACS Chemical Biology)


WHO Backs Trials of Bacteria, Genetic Modification to Fight Zika Mosquitoes
Methods will be used in combination with other traditional tools -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Frozen rabbit kidneys could solve organ shortage for transplants
An embryonic rabbit kidney can be transplanted after three months in the deep freeze and develop into an adult kidney without causing immune rejection (Source: New Scientist - Health)


Mothers and daughters
(European Molecular Biology Laboratory) EMBL scientists have observed how an egg cell gets rid of its centrioles -- structures that play a crucial role in cell division -- to ensure the proper development of the embryo. The study, published today in Journal of Cell Biology, is the first time the whole process has been seen in its entirety, in real time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


New way to treat cancer and vessel diseases
(Lomonosov Moscow State University) Cell biologists from the Lomonosov Moscow State University discovered a new way of regulating of cell motility -- this discovery will make possible development of new drugs for curing onco- and vessel diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Travel burden linked with likelihood of receiving radiation therapy to treat rectal cancer
(American Society for Radiation Oncology) Increased travel distance to a cancer treatment facility negatively impacts the likelihood that patients with stage II/III rectal cancer will receive radiation therapy (RT) to treat their disease, according to a study analyzing 26,845 patient records from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) that was published in the March 2016 issue of International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics (Red Journal), the official scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Tracing the scent of fear
(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center) A new study has identified nerve cells and a region of the brain behind this innate fear response. With a new technique that uses specially-engineered viruses to uncover the nerve pathway involved, a research team led by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center biologist and Nobel Prize winner Dr. Linda Buck has pinpointed a tiny area of the mouse brain responsible for this scent-induced reaction. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Many species now going extinct may vanish without a fossil trace
(University of Illinois at Chicago) Scientists struggle to compare the magnitude of Earth's ongoing sixth mass-extinction event with the five great die-offs of prehistory. A new study by three paleontologists shows that the species now perishing may vanish without a permanent trace -- and earlier extinctions may be underestimated as well. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Out-of-hospital births are on the rise
(Wiley) United States' out-of-hospital births increased to nearly 60,000 in 2014, continuing a decade-long increase. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics indicates that out-of-hospital births increased from 0.87 percent of US births in 2004 to 1.50 percent in 2014, an increase of 72 percent. Out-of-hospital birth rates increased for all race/ethnic groups, but most rapidly for non-Hispanic white women. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


The evolution of altruistic defense in enslaved ants
(Wiley) New research looks at the evolution of an altruistic defense by enslaved Temnothorax longispinosus ant workers that rebel against their social parasite Temnothorax americanus, a slavemaking ant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Research provides insights on lethal blindness in a Scottish bird of conservation concern
(Wiley) The Scottish bird population of red-billed choughs, which currently totals less than 60 breeding pairs and is of major conservation concern, is being affected by lethal blindness that is passed on by non-blind individuals that carry a mutant gene (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Sleep suppresses brain rebalancing
(Brandeis University) Why humans and other animals sleep is one of the remaining deep mysteries of physiology. A study from Brandeis University shows that homeostatic mechanisms are indeed gated by sleep and wake, but in the opposite direction from that theorized previously. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Plants boost extreme temperatures by 5°C
(University of New South Wales) Heatwaves from Europe to China are likely to be more intense and result in maximum temperatures that are 3°C to 5°C warmer than previously estimated by the middle of the century -- all because of the way plants on the ground respond to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


City birds are smarter than country birds
(McGill University) Birds living in urban environments are smarter than birds from rural environments. But, why do city birds have the edge over their country friends? They adapted to their urban environments enabling them to exploit new resources more favorably then their rural counterparts, say a team of all-McGill University researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


IU biochemist finds solution to 'acid shock' in craft brewers' sour beer production
(Indiana University) Indiana University researchers have found that conditions common in the production of certain types of craft beers can inhibit the successful production of these brews, risking a growing segment of an industry whose economic impact was recently estimated at $55 billion. Sour beers are one of the fastest growing segments of the craft beer industry. The work appears in the journal Food Microbiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


International team at the MDI Biological Lab is deciphering the aging code
(Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory) The role of dietary restriction in extending lifespan is the subject of research being conducted at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, by visiting scientist Markus Schosserer, Ph.D., of the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, in Austria. Schosserer is collaborating with assistant professor Aric Rogers, Ph.D., on studies of the role played by molecular regulators of gene expression in longevity and how these regulators are affected by dietary restriction. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Beyond DNA: TGen points the way to enhanced precision medicine with RNA sequencing
(The Translational Genomics Research Institute) Researchers at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) are showing how genetic analysis using RNA sequencing can vastly enhance that understanding, providing doctors and their patients with more precise tools to target the underlying causes of disease, and help recommend the best course of action. Published today in the journal Nature Reviews Genetics, TGen scientists highlight the many advantages of using RNA-sequencing in the detection and management of everything from cancer to infectious diseases (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


The EMBO community welcomes Malta
(EMBO) EMBO is pleased to announce that Malta has joined its intergovernmental funding body, the European Molecular Biology Conference (EMBC). Malta is the 28th country to be accepted into the EMBC, where it can benefit from the support that EMBO offers to talented researchers in the life sciences at all stages of their careers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Survival of the hardest working
(Washington University in St. Louis) An engineering team at Washington University in St. Louis developed a cellular kill switch, a sensor that rewards hard working cells and eliminates their lazy counterparts. The high-tech engineering fix could help improve production of biofuels and pharmaceuticals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


First US rice drip irrigation research project in CA leverages Israeli R&D
(American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev) "We believe this initiative represents the first use of drip irrigation in the U. for a rice crop," explains Kyriakos Tsakopoulos, president, principal and chief executive officer of Conaway Preservation Group, which owns the 17,000-acre Conaway Ranch. This effort could serve as a model for other farms and potentially save hundreds of thousands of acre feet of water in California if widely adopted." (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Eastern Monarch butterflies at risk of extinction unless numbers increase
(United States Geological Survey) Long-term declines in the overwintering Eastern population of North American monarch butterflies are significantly increasing their likelihood of becoming extinct over the next two decades, according to Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego and US Geological Survey research published today. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Supporting the bioimaging revolution
(European Molecular Biology Laboratory - European Bioinformatics Institute) The rapid rise of high-resolution 3-D cellular imaging techniques in biology demands data solutions -- and EMBL is there to provide them. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Engineers adapt laser method to create micro energy units
(University of Missouri-Columbia) As the demand for thinner microelectronic devices increases, manufacturers often are limited by how oddly shaped the energy sources must become to make them conform to the smaller space. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri, have developed a method of transferring an energy source to virtually any shape. Using direct laser-writing techniques, scientists can help smartphone manufacturers fabricate energy storage units such as micro fuel cells that are environmentally friendly, highly designable and thin. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Parasites reveal how evolution has molded an ancient nuclear structure
(Rockefeller University) The architecture of the nuclear pore complex is similar in humans and yeast, suggesting that it had been established over a billion years ago. But new research in a simple parasite, the trypanosome, indicates that it has actually been evolving steadily. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Recycling pecan wood for commercial growing substrates
(American Society for Horticultural Science) A study evaluated vegetative growth and leaf nutrient responses of chrysanthemum grown in five pecan wood chip substrate levels that substituted 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of peatmoss by volume. Three water-soluble fertilizer rates were applied. Results showed that, with low to moderate amounts of pecan wood, further adjustments to fertilizer rate and irrigation volume would support sustainable fertigation practices, reduce dependence on peatmoss, and provide a value-added recycling option for pecan growers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Yellow as the sunrise
(University of Vienna) What is it that walnut leaves, mushrooms and Coreopsis have in common? An enzyme that is also responsible for the browning reaction in bananas or apples is present in all of them in large amounts. For the first time, chemists from the University of Vienna around Annette Rompel have analyzed the structure of the enzyme in the leaves of Coreopsis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Island foxes may need genetic rescue
(Colorado State University) The island fox has made a remarkable comeback from the brink of extinction, with three of six populations on their way to becoming the fastest mammal recovered under the Endangered Species Act. But new Colorado State University-led research uncovers a hidden danger to the future viability of some island fox populations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Plants take on fungal tenants on demand
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Innate immune system of the thale cress plant ensures a good phosphate supply (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


UGA researchers find potential treatment for prostate cancer
(University of Georgia) Researchers at the University of Georgia have created a new therapeutic for prostate cancer that has shown great efficacy in mouse models of the disease. They published their findings recently in the journal Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine.The treatment is designed to inhibit the activity of a protein called PAK-1, which contributes to the development of highly invasive prostate cancer cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)


From feeling to reacting: A 2-way street between temperature sensing, brain activity
(Nagoya University) Nagoya University researchers reveal how perceived external information is converted into a succession of neural activities that are crucial for appropriate navigation in an environment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Biodiversity brings disease resistance: Novel study
(University of Adelaide) A novel study of a Tibetan alpine meadow has shown a clear link between higher biodiversity and greater infectious disease resistance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Parsing conservation information on cycad species
(University of Guam) An empirical exercise to gain a deeper understanding of the status of the world's cycad genera. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Multi-functional roles for the polypeptide transport associated domains of Toc75 in chloroplast protein import
(Source: eLife)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Registered Report: COT drives resistance to RAF inhibition through MAP kinase pathway reactivation
(Source: eLife)


Structural basis for germline antibody recognition of HIV-1 immunogens
(Source: eLife)


A New Fiji-Based Algorithm That Systematically Quantifies Nine Synaptic Parameters Provides Insights into Drosophila NMJ Morphometry
by Bonnie Nijhof, Anna Castells-Nobau, Louis Wolf, Jolanda M. Scheffer-de Gooyert, Ignacio Monedero, Laura Torroja, Lluis Coromina, Jeroen A. W. M. van der Laak, Annette Schenck The morphology of synapses is of central interest in neuroscience because of the intimate relation with synaptic efficacy. Two decades of gene manipulation studies in different animal models have revealed a repertoire of molecules that contribute to synapse development. However, since such studies often assessed only one, or at best a few, morphological features at a given synapse, it remained unaddressed how different structural aspects relate to one another. Furthermore, such focused and sometimes only qualitative approaches likely left many of the more subtle players unnoticed. Here, we present the image analys...


Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System
by Kelsey Chalmers, Elizabeth M. Kita, Ethan K. Scott, Geoffrey J. Goodhill Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-ti...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Early Transcriptome Signatures from Immunized Mouse Dendritic Cells Predict Late Vaccine-Induced T-Cell Responses
by Nicolas Dérian, Bertrand Bellier, Hang Phuong Pham, Eliza Tsitoura, Dorothea Kazazi, Christophe Huret, Penelope Mavromara, David Klatzmann, Adrien Six Systems biology offers promising approaches for identifying response-specific signatures to vaccination and assessing their predictive value. Here, we designed a modelling strategy aiming to predict the quality of late T-cell responses after vaccination from early transcriptome analysis of dendritic cells. Using standardized staining with tetramer, we first quantified antigen-specific T-cell expansion 5 to 10 days after vaccination with one of a set of 41 different vaccine vectors all expressing the same antigen. Hierarchical clustering of the responses defined sets of high and low T cell response inducers. We then compared these respon...


Persistence and resistance as complementary bacterial adaptations to antibiotics
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Evolutionary Biology)


Influence of oxidative homeostasis on bacterial density and cost of infection in Drosophila‐Wolbachia symbioses
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Evolutionary Biology)


Synthetic Zeolites as Controlled‐Release Delivery Systems for Anti‐Inflammatory Drugs
In this study, soaking, filtration and solvent evaporation methods were used to load the drugs after activation of the zeolites. Weight measurement, spectroscopy FTIR, thermogravimetry and scanning electronic microscope were used to determine drug loading on the systems. Finally, consideration of drug release was made in a simulated gastric fluid and a simulated intestinal fluid for all matrixes (zeolites containing drugs) and drugs without zeolites. Diclofenac sodium (D) and piroxicam (P) were used as the drug models, and zeolites X and Y as the carriers. Drug loading percentage showed that over 90% of drugs were loaded on zeolites. Dissolution tests in stomach pH environment showed that the control samples (drug without zeolite) released considerable amount of drugs (about 90%) within fi...


NPYFa, A Chimeric Peptide of Met‐Enkephalin, and NPFF Induces Tolerance‐Free Analgesia
Methionine‐enkephalin‐Arg‐Phe is an endogenous amphiactive analgesic peptide. Neuropeptide FF, on the other hand, is reported for its role in opioid modulation and tolerance development. Based on these reports, in the present study we designed a chimeric peptide NPYFa (YGGFMKKKPQRFamide), having the Met‐enkephalin (opioid) and PQRFamide sequence of neuropeptide FF, which can then target both the opioid and neuropeptide FF receptors. We hypothesized that the chimeric peptide so designed would have both analgesic properties and further aid in understanding of the role of neuropeptide FF in the development of opiate tolerance. Our studies indicated that NPYFa induced an early onset, potent, dose‐dependent and prolonged antinociception. Additionally, antagonists (MOR, KOR, and DOR) p...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Transcriptome and metabolite profiling reveals that prolonged drought modulates the phenylpropanoid and terpenoid pathway in white grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)
Secondary metabolism contributes to the adaptation of a plant to its environment. In wine grapes, fruit secondary metabolism largely determines wine quality. Climate change is predicted to exacerbate drought e... (Source: BMC Plant Biology)


Melatonin reverses morphine tolerance by inhibiting microglia activation and HSP27 expression
In this study, we explored the possible mechanism of melatonin in diminishing morphine tolerance. Main methods Two intrathecal (i.t.) catheters were implanted in male Wistar rats for drug delivery. One was linked to a mini-osmotic pump for morphine or saline infusion. On the seventh day, 50μg of melatonin or vehicle was injected through the other catheter instantly after discontinuation of morphine or saline infusion; 3h later, 15μg of morphine or saline was injected. The antinociceptive response was then measured using the tail-flick test every 30min for 120min. Key findings The results showed that chronic morphine infusion elicited antinociceptive tolerance and upregulated heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) expression in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Melatonin pretreatment parti...


Fish oil attenuates persistent inflammatory pain in rats through modulation of TNF-α and resolvins
This study investigates the effects of oral doses of omega-3 FA from FO and concentrated fish oil (CFO) in a model of sub-chronic IP, induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Main methods IP was induced by intraplantar injection of CFA into the right hind paw of Wistar rats. Three groups were pre-treated with omega-3 FA: two groups received CFO (460mg of EPA/360mg of DHA and 690mg of EPA/540mg of DHA) and one group received natural FO (460mg EPA/300mg DHA), for 7days before IP induction (pre-treatment) and 5days after induction (treatment). Key findings TNF-α levels were reduced by CFO 690 (67.9%; p&lt;0.01), CFO 460 (57.7%; p&lt;0.01), FO 460 (26.2%), compared to the augment promoted by CFA (549.7%; p&lt;0.001). Resolvin levels were increased in treated groups with resp...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Soil communities are affected by CO2 belowground emissions at a natural vent in Spain


Does surgical sympathectomy improve clinical outcomes in patients with refractory angina pectoris?
A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: In patients with angina pectoris refractory to medical therapy, does surgical sympathectomy improve clinical outcomes? A total of 528 papers were identified using the search protocol described, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. There were 5 case series and 1 prospective cohort study. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. All 5 of the case series demonstrated an improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance or quality of life in patients undergoing surgical sympathectomy. An early case series investigating an open approa...


Contrast layering artefact mimicking aortic dissection in a patient on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation undergoing computed tomography scan
We present a case of a 65-year old patient on veno-arterial ECMO with a pseudo-filling defect of the arterial system on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, resembling aortic dissection. (Source: Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery)


Management of a patient with giant aneurysms in the popliteal and coronary arteries
We present a case of rare giant coronary aneurysm and concurrent giant left popliteal aneurysm treated with classical open repair. (Source: Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


A novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of high density lipoprotein through Up-regulating annexin A1 in vascular endothelial cells
In this study, HDL increased endothelial annexin A1 and prevented decrease of annexin A1 in TNF-α-activated endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, and above effects were attenuated after knockdown of annexin A1. Annexin A1 modulation affected HDL-mediated inhibition of monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-activated endothelium (45.2±13.7% decrease for Annexin A1 RNA interference; 78.7±16.3% decrease for anti-Annexin A1 antibody blocking; 11.2±6.9% increase for Ad-ANXA1 transfection). Additionally, HDL up-regulated annexin A1 through scavenger receptor class B type I, involving ERK, p38MAPK, Akt and PKC signaling pathways, and respective inhibitors of these pathways attenuated HDL-induced annexin A1 expression as well as impaired HDL-mediated inhibition of monocyte-endothelial cells Adhesion. a...


The benefits of exploiting rare genetic disorders to better understand human health and disease
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell &amp; Developmental Biology, Volume 52 Author(s): Andrew R. Tee (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)


A mitochondrial view of cell fate
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Seminars in Cell &amp; Developmental Biology, Volume 52 Author(s): Alessandro Prigione (Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology)


Pulmonary Delivery of Cationic Gold Nanoparticles Boost Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Proliferation
To address how surface charge affects the fate of potential nanocarriers in the lung, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with polyvinyl alcohol containing either positively (NH2) or negatively (COOH) charged functional groups were intra-nasally instilled in mice, and their uptake by antigen presenting cell populations (APC) in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, trachea, and lung parenchyma, as well as trafficking to the lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs) was assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, CD4+ T cell proliferation in LDLNs was investigated following instillation. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Ultrasmall inorganic nanoparticles: state-of-the-art and perspectives for biomedical applications
Ultrasmall nanoparticulate materials with core sizes in the 1–3 nm range bridge the gap between single molecules and classical, larger-sized nanomaterials, not only in terms of spatial dimension, but also as regards physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Due to these unique properties, ultrasmall nanoparticles appear to be promising materials for nanomedicinal applications. This review overviews the different synthetic methods of inorganic ultrasmall nanoparticles as well as their properties, characterization, surface modification and toxicity. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Effect of Surface-Modified Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONS) on Mast Cell Infiltration: An Acute In vivo Study
Extensive use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS) in theranostics prompted us to investigate the acute changes in cell morphology and function following intravenous administration of surface-modified SPIONS in a rat model. Dextran-coated (DEX) and polyethylene glycol-coated (PEG) SPIONS were synthesized, characterized and cytocompatibility was evaluated in vitro. Haematological, histopathological, ultrastructural and oxidative stress analyses were carried out 24h post intravenous administration in vivo. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Regulation of angiogenesis through the efficient delivery of microRNAs into endothelial cells using polyamine-coated carbon nanotubes
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) directly regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level and represent an attractive therapeutic target for a wide range of diseases. Here, we report a novel strategy for delivering miRNAs to endothelial cells (ECs) to regulate angiogenesis, using polymer functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs were coated with two different polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) or polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM), followed by conjugation of miR-503 oligonucleotides as recognized regulators of angiogenesis. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Inflammation-targeted Gold Nanorods for Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) in Atherosclerotic Plaques
In this study, gold nanorods conjugated with MMP2 antibody (AuNRs-Abs) were developed as a highly efficient photoacoustic imaging (PAI) probe for mapping MMP2 in atherosclerotic plaques. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Inhibition of hepatitis C virus in mouse models by lipidoid nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of siRNA against PRK2
Host-targeting antivirals have an advantage over direct-acting antivirals in that they have a high genetic barrier to resistance. Here, we describe in vivo anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) efficacy of a potent siRNA targeting the protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2), which phosphorylates HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and promotes HCV replication. PRK2-silencing reduced the phosphorylated NS5B level and resulted in inhibition of NS5B RdRp activity to decrease HCV genome abundance. Systemic administration of lipidoid nanoparticle-formulated PRK2 siRNA (once every three days for a total of three injections at a dose of 3 mg kg−1) resulted in a 3.72 and 1.96 log10 reduction in serum HCV RNA titer, in mouse subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft models for HCV replication, respectively...


Quantum Dot Nanoparticle for Optimization of Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy in a Clinical Setting
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is used for staging of axillary lymph nodes. Organic dyes and radiocolloid are currently used for SLN mapping, but expose patients to ionizing radiation, are unstable during surgery and cause local tissue damage. Semiconductor quantum dots (QD) could be used for SLN mapping without the need for biopsy. Surgical resection of the primary tumor is the optimal treatment for early-diagnosed breast cancer, but due to difficulties in defining tumor margins, cancer cells often remain leading to reoccurrences. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-triggering potential of Disulfiram and Disulfiram-loaded polysorbate 80-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles on hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cell line
There is an emerging trend to restudy known drugs for their anti-cancer potential. One such anti-alcoholic drug, disulfiram, with significant anti-cancer potential was studied for its efficacy against Hep3B cell lines, an in vitro model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Simultaneously, we intended to study the effect of polysorbate 80- stabilized PLGA nanoparticles and its DSF-loaded counterpart. Cell and nuclear staining, comet assay, flow cytometry and western blots were performed. Results suggest that cell proliferation was inhibited by DSF and its PLGA nanoparticles through cell cycle arrest, triggering activation of apoptotic pathways that culminates with cell death. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Development of mechano-responsive polymeric scaffolds using functionalised silica nano fillers for the control of cellular functions
We demonstrate an efficient method to produce mechano-responsive polymeric scaffolds which can alter cellular functions using two different functionalised (OH and NH2) silica nano fillers. Fumed silica-hydroxyl and fumed silica-amine nano fillers were mixed with a biocompatible polymer (POSS-PCU) at various wt% to produce scaffolds. XPS and mechanical testing demonstrates that, bulk mechanical properties are modified without changing the scaffold’s surface chemistry. Mechanical testing showed significant change in bulk properties of POSS-PCU scaffolds with an addition of silica nanofillers as low as 1% (p (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Nanocapsule assemblies as effective enzyme delivery systems against hyperuricemia
The uricase nanocapsule assemblies (UNAs) were developed as effective delivery systems against hyperuricemia following parenteral enzyme therapy. UNAs were characterized in terms of micromorphology, size, catalytic activity, stability, and enzymatic kinetics. The pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in rats after intravenous or subcutaneous injection was investigated. Immunogenicity, hemolysis and stimulation were determined. UNA was composed of many nanocapsules, and thus had higher loading efficiencies and stabilities than a single nanocapsule. (Source: Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine)


Higher EZH2 expression is associated with extramedullary infiltration in acute myeloid leukemia
Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) promotes the metastatic ability of solid tumors, but the role of EZH2 in extramedullary infiltration (EMI) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, we investigated the possible association between EZH2 and EMI. We found that the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of EZH2 in AML patients were both significantly higher than in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients. Furthermore, a positive correlation between EZH2 mRNA expression and percentage of peripheral blood blasts wa s found in AML patients (r = 0.404, p = 0.009). The migratory capacities of Kasumi-1 and HL-60, which both show a high level of EZH2 expression, were ...


The effects of hypoxia on in vitro culture of dental-derived stem cells
(Source: Archives of Oral Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Association study for the role of Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 3 gene polymorphisms in dental caries susceptibility
(Source: Archives of Oral Biology)


Recent molecular and therapeutic advances in B‐cell non‐Hodgkin lymphoma in children
Summary Paediatric B‐cell non‐Hodgkin lymphoma (B‐NHL) compromises a heterogeneous group of histological entities of which Burkitt lymphoma is the most common. In resource‐rich countries, the expected cure rate is in excess of 85% with application of risk‐adapted short intensive chemotherapy. In recent years, large paediatric cooperative group trials have sought to improve upon outcomes by decreasing the intensity of cytotoxic treatment as well as introducing targeted therapies, such as rituximab. These efforts have resulted in excellent outcomes, however there remains a group of high‐risk patients for whom novel treatment approaches are needed. In this review, we will summarize the recent paediatric clinical trials in B‐NHL as well as compare treatment approaches across the ...


Association of Distance from Transplant center and Place of Residence on Outcomes after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
We examined the association between distance from primary residence to the transplant center and rural vs. urban residence with clinical outcomes following allogeneic HCT in a large cohort of patients. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)


Metabolic Syndrome After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: At the Intersection of Treatment Toxicity and Immune Dysfunction
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors face a multitude of short- and long-term health complications in the years following treatment. One important health complication that is associated with significant morbidity is metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). This constellation of findings, including obesity, glucose and lipid dysmetabolism, and hypertension, place affected individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular complications and stroke. Previous studies have linked MetSyn in HCT survivors to prior treatment; however, few have addressed the potential roles of systemic inflammation and immune system dysfunction following HCT. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)


Recovery of Unrelated Donors of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Bone Marrow: A Prespecified Analysis from the Phase III BMT CTN Protocol 0201
We report a comparison of time to recovery, side effects, and change in blood counts from baseline to post-donation of unrelated donors who participated in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) phase III randomized, multicenter trial (0201) in which donor/recipient pairs were randomized to either peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) or bone marrow (BM) donation. Of the entire cohort, 262 donated PBSC and 264 donated BM; 372 (71%) donors were from domestic and 154 (29%) from international centers (145 German and 9 Canadian). (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


NK Cells in HIV Disease
Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in viral immunity. In the setting of HIV infection, epidemiologic and functional evidence support a role for NK cells in both protection from new infection and in viral control. Specifically, NK cells directly mediate immune pressure leading to virus evolution, and NK cell receptor genotypic profiles, clonal repertoires, and functional capacity have all been implicated in virus containment. In addition, indirect NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity has been linked to vaccine-induced protective immunity against HIV infection. With recent advances in our understanding of NK cell deficiency, development, memory-like responses, and editing of the adaptive immune system, the opportunities to direct and exploit...


Autonomous Immunity in Mucosal Epithelial Cells: Fortifying the Barrier against Infection
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Microbes and Infection Author(s): Karen F. Ross, Mark C. Herzberg Mucosal epithelial cells express an autonomous innate immune response that controls the overgrowth of invaded bacteria, mitigates the harmful effects of the bacteria carried within, and does not rely on other external arms of the immune response. Epithelial cell autonomous innate immunity “respects” the social biology of invading bacteria to achieve symbiosis, and is the primary protective mechanism against pathogens. (Source: Microbes and Infection)


Adnexal masses requiring reoperation in women with previous hysterectomy with or without adnexectomy
Objective(s): Characterize the etiologies of adnexal masses requiring reoperation in women with prior hysterectomy and to compare incidence and pathology of these masses based upon whether total, partial or no adnexectomy was performed at time of hysterectomy. In addition, the average time interval between hysterectomy and reoperation for a pelvic mass is ascertained. (Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology)


Skeletal light-scattering accelerates bleaching response in reef-building corals
At the forefront of ecosystems adversely affected by climate change, coral reefs are sensitive to anomalously high temperatures which disassociate (bleaching) photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium) from coral ho... (Source: BMC Ecology)


Active Case Finding Among Homeless People as a Means of Reducing the Incidence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in General Population.
The objective of the present study was to find out whether the observed beneficial epidemiological trend could be a result of those programs. We addressed the issue of how the active case finding programs in the homeless community affected the TB incidence in the general population using a modified crisscross SIS-type (Susceptible - Infected - Susceptible) model which describes the dynamics of TB spread between the homeless and non-homeless populations. The values calculated from our model proved highly congruent with the actual epidemiological data. Our analysis showed a significant decline in TB incidence within 1 year of completion of each active case finding program. The model shows that each identified and cured case in the homeless community reduced the number of new cases in the ge...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Efficient siRNA Delivery Using Novel Cell-Penetrating Peptide-siRNA Conjugate-Loaded Nanobubbles and Ultrasound
In this study, development of a novel siRNA delivery system based on ultrasound-sensitive nanobubbles (NBs, nano-sized echogenic liposomes) and cell-permeable peptides (CPPs) is described. A CPP-siRNA conjugate was entrapped in an NB, (CPP-siRNA)-NB, and the penetration of CPP-siRNA was temporally masked; local ultrasound stimulation triggered the release of CPP-siRNA from the NBs and activated its penetration. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)


DNMT1 is a Required Genomic Regulator for Murine Liver Histogenesis and Regeneration
Conclusion: These results establish the indispensable role of DNMT1‐mediated epigenetic regulation in postnatal liver growth and regeneration. The Dnmt1Δalb mice provide a unique experimental model to study the role of senescence and contribution of progenitor cells to physiological and regenerative liver growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)


Hepatic Gene Transfer of Human Aquaporin‐1 Improves Bile Salt Secretory Failure in Rats with Estrogen‐Induced Cholestasis
Conclusion: Hepatocyte canalicular expression of hAQP1 via adenoviral gene transfer promotes biliary BS output by modulating BSEP activity in estrogen‐induced cholestasis; a novel finding that might help to better understand and treat cholestatic disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)


Regionalization of browning revealed by whole subcutaneous adipose tissue imaging.
CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these data demonstrate a structural and functional heterogeneity of the inguinal fat pad, with an anatomically restricted browning process in the core area. PMID: 26999447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Obesity)


Is specialization an evolutionary dead‐end? Testing for differences in speciation, extinction and trait transition rates across diverse phylogenies of specialists and generalists
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Evolutionary Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Hidden genetic variation in the germline genome of Tetrahymena thermophila
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Evolutionary Biology)


Non‐genetic polymorphisms in rotifers: environmental and endogenous controls, development, and features for predictable or unpredictable environments
ABSTRACT Pronounced non‐genetic polymorphisms, or polyphenisms, occur in some monogonont rotifers reproducing by diploid, female parthenogenesis. In many brachionids, there is great variation in spine length. In trimorphic species of Asplanchna, females can vary in size and shape, from a small saccate morph to giant cruciform and campanulate morphs. In species that also reproduce sexually, diploid eggs can develop into two types of females. Amictic females produce diploid eggs that develop parthenogenetically into females; mictic females produce haploid eggs that develop parthenogenetically into males or, if fertilized, into resting eggs. In a species of Synchaeta, amictic females produce diploid eggs that can be either thin‐shelled and subitaneous or thicker‐shelled and diapausing. ...


Evolutionary relationships within the Phytophthora cactorum species complex in Europe
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Fungal Biology Author(s): Matěj Pánek, Tomáš Fér, Jaroslav Mráček, Michal Tomšovský The Phytophthora cactorum species complex in Europe is composed of P. cactorum, P. hedraiandra, and a hybrid species P. × serendipita. Evolutionary analyses using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method were carried out on 133 isolates from 19 countries. The AFLP data were complemented by sequence analysis of three genes (ITS region of ribosomal RNA gene, phenolic acid decarboxylase – Pheca I, and Cytochrome oxidase – Cox I), morphometric analysis and cardinal temperature data. The high proportion of clonal genotypes, low gene flow among groups, which was defined by the structure analysis, and low Nei's gene diversi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions in the HIF System.
Authors: Wilkins SE, Abboud MI, Hancock RL, Schofield CJ Abstract Animals respond to chronic hypoxia by increasing the levels of a transcription factor known as the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). HIF upregulates multiple genes, the products of which work to ameliorate the effects of limited oxygen at cellular and systemic levels. Hypoxia sensing by the HIF system involves hydroxylase-catalysed post-translational modifications of the HIF α-subunits, which 1) signal for degradation of HIF-α and 2) limit binding of HIF to transcriptional coactivator proteins. Because the hypoxic response is relevant to multiple disease states, therapeutic manipulation of the HIF-mediated response has considerable medicinal potential. In addition to modulation of catalysis by the HIF hydroxylase...


Review on egfr inhibitors: critical updates.
REVIEW ON EGFR INHIBITORS: CRITICAL UPDATES. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2016 Mar 21; Authors: Singh D, Attri BK, Gill RK, Bariwal J Abstract Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that constitutes one of the four members of ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Activation of EGFR leads to autophosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase that initiates a cascade of downstream signaling pathways involved in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. EGFR is abnormally activated by various mechanisms like receptor overexpression, mutation, ligand-dependent receptor dimerization, ligand-independent activation and is associated with the development of variety of human cancers. EGFR inhibition is one of the key targets for c...


Conditional Control of CRISPR/Cas9 Function.
Authors: Zhou W, Deiters A Abstract The recently discovered CRISPR/Cas9 endonuclease system, comprised of a guide RNA for the recognition of a DNA target and the Cas9 nuclease protein for binding and processing the target, has been extensively studied and has been widely applied in genome editing, synthetic biology, and transcriptional modulation in cells and animals. Toward more precise genomic modification and further expansion of the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a spatiotemporally controlled gene regulatory system, several approaches of conditional activation of Cas9 function using small molecules and light have recently been developed. These methods have led to improvements in the genome editing specificity of the CRISPR/Cas9 system and enabled its activation with temporal and spatial...


Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.
In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota. PMID: 26997344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biological Trace Element Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Uterine natural killer cell partnerships in early mouse decidua basalis.
In this study, we confirmed the presence of anti-CD54(+)/anti-CD11a(+) immune synapses in CD45(+) decidual cell conjugates and characterized their cellular heterogeneity. Conjugated cell pairs were virtually absent before implantation (virgin and gestation days 3.5 and 4.5), were infrequent at gestation day 5.5, but involved 19% of all CD45(+) cells by gestation day 8.5, then declined. By gestation day 8.5, almost all CD45(+) cells coexpressed CD31, and 2 CD45(+)CD31(+) cells composed most conjugates. Conjugation partners were defined for 2 nonoverlapping uterine natural killer cell subsets (Ly49C/I (+)/Dolichos biflorus agglutinin lectin(-) and Ly49C/I(-)/Dolichos biflorus agglutinin lectin(+)). Ly49C/I(+) uterine natural killer cells were the major subset from before mating up to gestati...


Non-genetic polymorphisms in rotifers: environmental and endogenous controls, development, and features for predictable or unpredictable environments.
Authors: Gilbert JJ Abstract Pronounced non-genetic polymorphisms, or polyphenisms, occur in some monogonont rotifers reproducing by diploid, female parthenogenesis. In many brachionids, there is great variation in spine length. In trimorphic species of Asplanchna, females can vary in size and shape, from a small saccate morph to giant cruciform and campanulate morphs. In species that also reproduce sexually, diploid eggs can develop into two types of females. Amictic females produce diploid eggs that develop parthenogenetically into females; mictic females produce haploid eggs that develop parthenogenetically into males or, if fertilized, into resting eggs. In a species of Synchaeta, amictic females produce diploid eggs that can be either thin-shelled and subitaneous or thicker-sh...


The Eukaryotic Replisome Goes Under the Microscope.
Authors: O'Donnell M, Li H Abstract The machinery at the eukaryotic replication fork has seen many new structural advances using electron microscopy and crystallography. Recent structures of eukaryotic replisome components include the Mcm2-7 complex, the CMG helicase, DNA polymerases, a Ctf4 trimer hub and the first look at a core replisome of 20 different proteins containing the helicase, primase, leading polymerase and a lagging strand polymerase. The eukaryotic core replisome shows an unanticipated architecture, with one polymerase sitting above the helicase and the other below. Additionally, structures of Mcm2 bound to an H3/H4 tetramer suggest a direct role of the replisome in handling nucleosomes, which are important to DNA organization and gene regulation. This review provid...


Palaeogenomics: Mitogenomes and Migrations in Europe's Past.
Authors: Richards MB, Soares P, Torroni A Abstract The latest in a series of transformative studies of DNA from prehistoric Europeans focuses on mitochondrial DNA, bringing fresh surprises and filling in important details of the early stages of a European ancestry stretching back more than 40,000 years. PMID: 27003890 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Translational Control: Selective Upregulation of ECM Components Drives Tumour Growth.
Authors: Willis AE Abstract A new mechanistic link has been identified between the expression of initiator methionine tRNA and cancer progression, whereby elevated levels of this tRNA specifically drive synthesis of secretome components, resulting in a type II collagen-rich matrix that promotes tumour progression. PMID: 27003889 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)


Memory Processing: Ripples in the Resting Brain.
Authors: Walker MP, Robertson EM Abstract Recent work has shown that, during sleep, a functional circuit is created amidst a general breakdown in connectivity following fast-frequency bursts of brain activity. The findings question the unconscious nature of deep sleep, and provide an explanation for its contribution to memory processing. PMID: 27003888 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)


Palaeontology: Scrapes of Dinosaur Courtship.
Authors: Hone DW Abstract Analysis of numerous trace fossils reveals 'nest scrape displays' made by dinosaurs that are analogous to those left by modern birds. PMID: 27003887 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)


Locomotion: Electrical Coupling of Motor and Premotor Neurons.
Authors: Prendergast A, Wyart C Abstract A new study has found that zebrafish motor neurons can contribute to the generation of locomotor rhythms by feedback modulation of their premotor interneurons via gap junctions. PMID: 27003886 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)


Evolution: The End of an Ancient Asexual Scandal.
Authors: Schwander T Abstract Bdelloid rotifers were believed to have persisted and diversified in the absence of sex. Two papers now show they exchange genes with each other, via horizontal gene transfers as known in bacteria and/or via other forms of non-canonical sex. PMID: 27003885 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?
Authors: Ala-Laurila P Abstract A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights. PMID: 27003884 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)


Flower Colour: How Bumblebees Handle Colours with Perceptually Changing Hues.
Authors: Lunau K Abstract Colours are floral signals enabling bees to detect, inspect and discriminate flowers in a multitasking world. Behavioural tests now show that trained bumblebees find iridescent coloured targets more quickly and that weak iridescence does not corrupt target identification. PMID: 27003883 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)


Did cortical remapping lend artist a hand?
Authors: Altschuler E Abstract A fantastic exhibition focusing on the work of German graphic artist Matthias Buchinger (1674-1740) has recently opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (http://metmuseum.org/events/programs/met-speaks/ticketed-talks/buchingerricky-jay). Buchinger's specialty was micrography, an art form developed by Jewish calligraphers in the ninth century in which apparent lines or strands of hair in a drawing are actually themselves composed of tiny letters such as in Buchinger's wondrous portrait of Queen Anne, in which what appear to be very thin 'lines' making up her hair, some of her garments and a surrounding design is written in microscopic letters the first three chapters of the Book of Kings. Buchinger's works are all the more amazing as he wa...


Amateur photographs reveal population history of a colonial seabird.
Authors: Hentati-Sundberg J, Olsson O Abstract Long-term datasets are necessary to examine human impacts on ecosystems [1]. However, standardized scientific inquiry generally only dates back 30-40 years. Therefore, alternative approaches are necessary to obtain long-term ecological data. For example, previous studies have used newspaper reports to derive fish catch rates [2], historical photographs to study phenology [3] and fish size distribution [4], as well as fish bone data from archaeological excavations to derive growth parameters [5]. Photographs have also been used to provide useful information about marine animal populations [6,7]. Inspired by these approaches, we collected and analysed amateur photographs of the major seabird colony in the Baltic Sea. Based on these photo...


SERK co-receptor kinases.
Authors: Brandt B, Hothorn M Abstract SERKs are a small family of co-receptor kinases that regulate diverse functions in plants. PMID: 27003880 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Drought and recovery: independently regulated processes highlighting the importance of protein turnover dynamics and translational regulation in Medicago truncatula.
Authors: Lyon D, Castillejo MA, Mehmeti-Tershani V, Staudinger C, Kleemaier C, Wienkoop S Abstract Climate change in conjunction with population growth necessitates a systems biology approach to characterize plant drought acclimation as well as a more thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress recovery. Plants are exposed to a continuously changing environment. Extremes such as several weeks of drought are followed by rain. This requires a molecular plasticity of the plant enabling drought acclimation and the necessity of deacclimation processes for recovery and continuous growth. During drought stress and subsequent recovery, the metabolome and proteome are regulated through a sequence of molecular processes including synthesis and degradation and molecular inter...


Transposable Elements and Their KRAB-ZFP Controllers Regulate Gene Expression in Adult Tissues.
Authors: Ecco G, Cassano M, Kauzlaric A, Duc J, Coluccio A, Offner S, Imbeault M, Rowe HM, Turelli P, Trono D Abstract KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) are early embryonic controllers of transposable elements (TEs), which they repress with their cofactor KAP1 through histone and DNA methylation, a process thought to result in irreversible silencing. Using a target-centered functional screen, we matched murine TEs with their cognate KRAB-ZFP. We found the paralogs ZFP932 and Gm15446 to bind overlapping but distinguishable subsets of ERVK (endogenous retrovirus K), repress these elements in embryonic stem cells, and regulate secondarily the expression of neighboring genes. Most importantly, we uncovered that these KRAB-ZFPs and KAP1 control TEs in adult tissues, in ce...


Emerging Imaging and Genomic Tools for Developmental Systems Biology.
Authors: Liu Z, Keller PJ Abstract Animal development is a complex and dynamic process orchestrated by exquisitely timed cell lineage commitment, divisions, migration, and morphological changes at the single-cell level. In the past decade, extensive genetic, stem cell, and genomic studies provided crucial insights into molecular underpinnings and the functional importance of genetic pathways governing various cellular differentiation processes. However, it is still largely unknown how the precise coordination of these pathways is achieved at the whole-organism level and how the highly regulated spatiotemporal choreography of development is established in turn. Here, we discuss the latest technological advances in imaging and single-cell genomics that hold great promise for advancin...


LZ-106, a novel analogue of enoxacin, inducing apoptosis via activation of ROS-dependent DNA damage response in NSCLCs.
In this study, we found LZ-106, an analogue of enoxacin, exhibiting potent inhibitory effects on NSCLC in both cultured cells and xenograft mouse model. We identified apoptosis-inducing action of LZ-106 in NSCLC cells through the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress apoptotic pathways via Annexin-V/PI double-staining assay, membrane potential detection, calcium level detection and the expression analysis of the key apoptotic proteins. Through comet assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, the expression analysis of DNA damage response (DDR) marker γ-H2AX and other DDR-related proteins, we also demonstrated that LZ-106 notably induced ROS overproduction and DDR. Interestingly, additional evidence in our findings revealed that DDR and apoptosis could be alleviated in t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


L-ascorbic acid can abrogate SVCT2-dependent cetuximab resistance mediated by mutant KRAS in human colon cancer cells.
In this study, we demonstrate that L-ascorbic acid partners with cetuximab to induce killing effects, which are influenced by sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT-2) in human colon cancer cells with a mutant KRAS. L-ascorbic acid treatment of human colon cancer cells that express a mutant KRAS differentially and synergistically induced cell death with cetuximab in a SVCT-2-dependent manner. The ectopic expression of SVCT-2 induced sensitivity to L-ascorbic acid treatment in human colon cancer cells that do not express SVCT-2, whereas the knockdown of endogenous SVCT-2 induced resistance to L-ascorbic acid treatment in SVCT-2-positive cells. Moreover, tumor regression via the administration of L-ascorbic acid and cetuximab in mice bearing tumor cell xenografts corresponded to SVCT...


Platinum anti-cancer drugs: free radical mechanism of Pt-DNA adduct formation and anti-neoplastic effect.
Authors: Fong CW Abstract The literature on the anti-neoplastic effects of Pt drugs provides substantial evidence that free radical may be involved in the formation of Pt-DNA adducts and other cytotoxic effects. The conditions specific to cancerous tumours are more conducive to free radical mechanisms than the commonly accepted hydrolysis nucleophilic - electrophilic mechanism of Pt-DNA adduct formation. Molecular orbital studies of the adiabatic attachment of hydrated electrons to Pt drugs reveal that there is a significant lengthening of the Pt-X bond (where X is Cl, O in cisplatin, carboplatin and some pyrophosphate-Pt drugs but not oxaliplatin) in the anion radical species. This observation is consistent with a dissociative electron transfer (DET) mechanism for the formation of...


Effect of long-term vitamin E and selenium supplementation on urine F2-Isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidative stress.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term vitamin E supplementation decreases urine 8-iso-PGF2α among male cigarette smokers, but we observed little to no evidence for an effect of selenium supplementation, alone or combined with vitamin E. PMID: 27012420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine)


Broad-spectrum antimicrobial photocatalysis mediated by titanium dioxide and UVA is potentiated by addition of bromide ion via formation of hypobromite.
Authors: Wu X, Huang YY, Kushida Y, Bhayana B, Hamblin MR Abstract Antimicrobial photocatalysis involves the UVA excitation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (particularly the anatase form) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that kill microbial cells. For the first time we report that the addition of sodium bromide to photoactivated TiO2 (P25) potentiates the killing of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by up to three logs. The potentiation increased with increasing bromide concentration in the range of 0-10mM. The mechanism of potentiation is probably due to generation of both short and long-lived oxidized bromine species including hypobromite as shown by the following observations. There is some antimicrobial activity remaining in solution after switchi...


Structural, biological and biophysical properties of glycated and glycoxidized phosphatidylethanolamines.
Authors: Annibal A, Riemer T, Jovanovic O, Westphal D, Griesser E, Pohl EE, Schiller J, Hoffmann R, Fedorova M Abstract Glycation and glycoxidation of proteins and peptides have been intensively studied and are considered as reliable diagnostic biomarkers of hyperglycemia and early stages of type II diabetes. However, glucose can also react with primary amino groups present in other cellular components, such as aminophospholipids (aminoPLs). Although it is proposed that glycated aminoPLs can induce many cellular responses and contribute to the development and progression of diabetes, the routes of their formation and their biological roles are only partially revealed. The same is true for the influence of glucose-derived modifications on the biophysical properties of PLs. Here we s...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids prevent astrocyte-mediated toxicity to motor neurons in a cell model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor activation.
Authors: Diaz-Amarilla P, Miquel E, Trostchansky A, Trias E, Ferreira AM, Freeman BA, Cassina P, Barbeito L, Vargas MR, Rubbo H Abstract Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in tissues during inflammation, which are able to induce pleiotropic cytoprotective and antioxidant pathways including up regulation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) responsive genes. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motor neurons associated to an inflammatory process that usually aggravates the disease progression. In ALS animal models, the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 in astrocytes confers protection to neighboring neurons. It is currently unknown whether NO2-FA can exert...


Genetic diversity and relationships detected by ISSR and RAPD analysis among Aethionema species growing in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey).
In this study, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) analysis were used to examine the genetic relationships among eight Aethionema species (Aethionema caespitosum, A. arabicum, A. cordatum, A. fimnraitum, A. armenum, A. speciosum supsp. speciosum, A. memraneceum, A. grandiflorum var. grandiflorum) growing in the wild in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Fourteen RAPD primers and 7 ISSR primers were used. The UPGMA cluster was constructed using a combination of data from RAPD and ISSR markers. The Aethionema species were classified into two major groups. The similarity matrix values of between 0.182 (A. cordatum, A. speciosum supsp. speciosum) and 0.927 (A. grandiflorum var. grandiflorum, A. cordatum). High genetic variations among Aethionema sp...


Zn(2+) at a cellular crossroads.
Authors: Liang X, Dempski RE, Burdette SC Abstract Zinc is an essential micronutrient for cellular homeostasis. Initially proposed to only contribute to cellular viability through structural roles and non-redox catalysis, advances in quantifying changes in nM and pM quantities of Zn(2+) have elucidated increasing functions as an important signaling molecule. This includes Zn(2+)-mediated regulation of transcription factors and subsequent protein expression, storage and release of intracellular compartments of zinc quanta into the extracellular space which modulates plasma membrane protein function, as well as intracellular signaling pathways which contribute to the immune response. This review highlights some recent advances in our understanding of zinc signaling. PMID: 2701034...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Roof plate mediated morphogenesis of the forebrain: New players join the game.
Authors: Gupta S, Sen J Abstract The roof plate is a crucial signaling center located at the dorsal midline of the developing central nervous system (CNS) along its rostro-caudal axis. By virtue of secreting multiple signaling molecules, it regulates diverse processes such as specification of dorsal fate, proliferation and axon guidance. In the forebrain, the roof plate is not only involved in patterning but is also involved in the division of the single forebrain vesicle into the two cerebral hemispheres, the failure of which leads to certain forms of holoprosencephaly. Although several molecular players such as Fgfs, BMPs, Wnts and Shh have been identified as crucial regulators of development of the forebrain, little is known about how they interact to bring about the morphologic...


Integrative and comparative reproductive biology: from alligators to xenobiotics.
Authors: McCoy KA, Roark AM, Boggs AS, Bowden JA, Cruze L, Edwards TM, Hamlin HJ, Cantu TM, McCoy JA, McNabb NA, Wenzel AG, Williams CE, Kohno S Abstract Dr. Louis J. Guillette Jr. thought of himself as a reproductive biologist. However, his interest in reproductive biology transcended organ systems, life history stages, species, and environmental contexts. His integrative and collaborative nature led to diverse and fascinating research projects conducted all over the world. He doesn't leave us with a single legacy. Instead, he entrusts us with several. The purpose of this review is to highlight those legacies, in both breadth and diversity, and to illustrate Dr. Guillette's grand contributions to the field of reproductive biology. He has challenged the field to reconsider how we t...


The protective effect of qiancao naomaitong mixture on neuronal damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Conclusion QNM exerted protective effect by inhibiting the cell apoptosis in vitro. The protective mechanisms of QNM were associated with its properties of anti-apoptosis and antioxidation as well as improved neuronal nutrition in I/R rats. PMID: 26987389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmaceutical Biology)


6-Gingerol inhibits Vibrio cholerae-induced proinflammatory cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells via modulation of NF-κB.
Conclusion Our results showed that 6G could modulate the anti-inflammatory responses triggered by V. cholerae-induced infection in intestinal epithelial cells by modulating NF-κB pathway. PMID: 26987371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmaceutical Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Monoammonium glycyrrhizinate protects rifampicin- and isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity via regulating the expression of transporter Mrp2, Ntcp, and Oatp1a4 in liver.
CONCLUSION: These results indicated that MAG has a protective effects against RIF- and INH-induced hepatotoxicity. The underlying mechanism may have correlation with its effect on regulating the expression of hepatobiliary membrane transporters. PMID: 26987268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmaceutical Biology)


Year in review: mechanics
Purpose: Inappropriate mechanical loading, namely overloading and wear-and-tear, has been long believed to one of the main causes of osteoarthritis. However, what we view as inappropriate mechanical loading is now being re-evaluated, especially when examined along-side tissue biology, i.e. mechanobiology. This is being enabled by research using new multiscale experimental and computational studies focusing on cellular and tissue level mechanics through to organ and whole-body level mechanics. This presentation will review papers from the last year with a focus on multiscale experimental and computational studies directed to understanding mechanobiology of joint tissues in relation to the development of osteoarthritis. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


Year in review: osteoarthritis biology
The year in review of Osteoarthritis Biology will discuss a selection of literature published on this topic in the past 12 months. This selection will be made from publications found in pubmed searches with search terms “osteoarthritis” combined with “cartilage” or “bone” or “inflammation”, limited to original articles published between OARSI congress 2015 and 2016. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


Molecular mechanisms of sarcopenia
The loss of muscle mass, strength and/or function with advancing age is termed, sarcopenia. In addition to its impact on physical function, sarcopenia can affect systemic metabolism, the resilience of an organism to stress, and the health of other organs, including bone. This lecture will provide an overview of sarcopenia and its underlying mechanisms, including emerging concepts in the biology of aging. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


ER stress: a new regulator of chondrocyte biology and cartilage health
Purpose: Several papers have described the occurrence of ER stress in osteoarthritic chondrocytes although the role of ER stress in either disease onset or progression has not been delineated. However, we have previously demonstrated that increased chondrocyte ER stress plays a pivotal role in chondrodysplasias caused by mutations in cartilage extracellular matrix proteins. The aims of the studies I will present were therefore: i) to characterise the role of chondrocyte ER stress in osteoarthritis; and ii) to demonstrate the clinical potential of alleviating ER stress in an ER stress -related cartilage pathology. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Characterization of synovial mast cells in knee osteoarthritis: Association with synovitis and clinical parameters
In this study, we sought evidence for a possible role of these cells in OA by quantifying and characterizing mast cells in the osteoarthritic (OA) synovium using immunofluorescence and investigating their association with clinical parameters in comparison with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) samples. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


An ECHO in biology II: Insights in chondrocyte cell fate
Purpose: An intricate network of regulatory processes determines the chondrocyte cell fate during development and maintains tissue homeostasis. In the event of a disease such as OA, the regulatory network is critically compromised. To cure the disease, we need to restore the regulatory processes to their original state. However, because of the inherent complexity of regulatory networks, they cannot be efficiently analyzed and understood without computational assistance. To obtain insight into the function of such complex networks we developed a dynamic computational model of chondrocytes, the Executable CHOndrocyte or ECHO. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


Role of matrix GLA protein during mouse postnatal endochondral ossification
Purpose: Matrix gla protein (Mgp) is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which belongs to the family of extracellular mineral-binding proteins called Gla proteins. Mgp is mainly synthesized and expressed by chondrocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. If Mgp has been shown to play a critical role in preventing pathological mineralization of the vascular wall, its role in skeletal development has hardly been studied. In this context, the purpose of our research was to investigate the role of Mgp in skeletal growth and endochondral ossification. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


ER-HOXB8 cell line, a new tool for the study of osteoclasts in osteoarthritis.
Purpose: Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorbing cells which are recruited to subchondral bone in osteoarthritis and may contribute to bone and cartilage degradation. To understand the mechanism by which osteoclasts degrade bone, in vivo studies are performed using mouse models and in vitro tests based on bone marrow derived cells. Disadvantages of this approach are the large use of animals, limitation in the number of cells available and heterogeneity in the bone marrow starting population. The use of a well-defined cell line could allow to overcome these limitations and simplify the study of the complex biology of these cells. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


Characterization of skeletal defects in mice with OSX-CRE-directed ablation of site-1 protease
Purpose: Site-1 protease (S1P) is a proprotein convertase that processes latent, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-bound transcription factors SREBPs and ATF6 to their active form. Cartilage-specific ablation of S1P in mice (S1Pcko) using Col2-Cre results in poor cartilage due to the entrapment of type IIB procollagen (pro-Col IIB) in chondrocytes and a complete lack of endochondral bone formation. Ablation of S1P in postnatal chondrocytes using Col2-CreERT mice, gradually eliminates the primary growth plate with a gradual abolition of Ihh and type X collagen expression in the growth plate. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Prognostic factors for the long-term clinical outcome of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy - A systematic review
Purpose: To identify prognostic factors for the clinical outcome following arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


Unilateral anterior crossbite induces aberrant mineral deposition in degenerative temporomandibular cartilage in rats
Purpose: Rrecently, we have developed a unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) procedure that could induce osteoarthritic (OA)-like changes in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) cartilage of rats and mice. Herein, we employed imaging, histological, and molecular biology techniques, and also in vitra assay, to investigate whether there is mineral deposition in the UAC induced OA cartilage, what the composition the mineral deposition has, and what a role of the minerals may take in OA cartilage. (Source: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage)


Evaluation of water-use efficiency in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) using visible-near infrared and thermal spectral sensing techniques.
Authors: Wang M, Ellsworth PZ, Zhou J, Cousins AB, Sankaran S Abstract Water limitations decrease stomatal conductance (gs) and, in turn, photosynthetic rate (Anet), resulting in decreased crop productivity. The current techniques for evaluating these physiological responses are limited to leaf-level measures acquired by measuring leaf-level gas exchange. In this regard, proximal sensing techniques can be a useful tool in studying plant biology as they can be used to acquire plant-level measures in a high-throughput manner. However, to confidently utilize the proximal sensing technique for high-throughput physiological monitoring, it is important to assess the relationship between plant physiological parameters and the sensor data. Therefore, in this study, the application of rapid...


The day I went on a field trip with Theodosius Dobzhansky | Steve Jones
A distant relative of Dostoevsky and one of the great geneticists of the past century, Theodosius Dobzhansky could be an intimidating character. But with a fly net in hand he became a different manGenetics is a science almost without a history. There was Gregor Mendel, of course, but his work was ignored for decades. Nowadays, of course, its advances are hailed in daily press releases. Modern biology will cure cancer, fix damaged DNA and uncover hidden talents, if not today then tomorrow (or perhaps in a few decades). The double helix has become the icon of the 21st century.My own link with its roots was with the Russian geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky, born in 1900. He spent his early career looking for useful genes in the semi-wild horses of Central Asia, interspersed with studies of lo...


Optimization of process parameters for the rapid biosynthesis of hematite nanoparticles
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Author(s): Kumar Rajendran, Shampa Sen Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in various applications including gas sensors, pigments owing to its low cost, environmental friendliness, non-toxicity and high resistance to corrosion. These nanoparticles were generally synthesized by different chemical methods. In the present study, nanoparticles were synthesized rapidly without heat treatment by biosynthesis approach using culture supernatant of Bacillus cereus SVK1. The physiochemical parameters for rapid synthesis were optimized by using UV–visible spectroscopy. The time taken for hematite nanoparticle synthesis was found to increase with the increasing concentrati...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Cadmium oxide nanoparticles grown in situ on reduced graphene oxide for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under ultraviolet irradiation
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Author(s): Sumeet Kumar, Animesh K. Ojha, Bernd Walkenfort Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles (NPs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO-CdO nanocomposites have been synthesized using one step hydrothermal method. The structural and optical properties of CdO NPs, rGO, and rGO-CdO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis.) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy techniques. The rGO has a sharp 2D peak compared to GO. The sharp nature of 2D band may be due to the larger contribution from single layer s...


Dimorphism in inflorescence scent of dioecious wild grapevine
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 66 Author(s): Pietro Zito, Antonina Scrima, Maurizio Sajeva, Francesco Carimi, Stefan Dötterl Wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris) is the dioecious ancestral form of grapevine, from which the domesticated cultivars have derived (V. vinifera subsp. vinifera). Little is known about the floral scent compounds of wild grapevine that is considered as being partly insect pollinated. The knowledge of volatiles released by male and female inflorescence may contribute to the understanding of the pollination biology of this endangered taxon. Inflorescence scents of male and female individuals were collected by dynamic headspace and analysed by thermal desorption-GC/MS. A total of 17 compounds of C5-br...


Cationized bovine serum albumin as gene carrier: Influence of specific secondary structure on DNA complexibility and gene transfection
Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Jianwei Du, Bangbang Li, Peng Zhang, Youxiang Wang In this research, BSA, one of the natural rigid globular proteins with ca. 51% of α-helix secondary structure, was utilized to prepare cationized BSA (cBSA) as gene carrier. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) or polyethylenimine (PEI1800) was grafted to BSA with different grafting levels. Based on the circular dichoism (CD) spectra, all cBSA remained α-helical structure to some degree. This was exciting to endow cBSA with quite different DNA complexibility and cellular biology behavior from the random coiled and flexible polycations such as PEI and poly-l-lysine (PLL). Strangely, the DNA condensability decreased with the increment of TEPA ...


Lithium attenuates lead induced toxicity on mouse non-adherent bone marrow cells
In conclusion, lithium efficiently reduces lead toxicity suggesting new insight into lithium action which may contribute to increased cell survival. It also provides a potentially new therapeutic strategy for lithium and a cost-effective approach to minimize destructive effects of lead on bone marrow stem cells. (Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology)


Characterization of Mn(II) ion binding to the amyloid-β peptide in Alzheimer’s disease
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology Author(s): Cecilia Wallin, Yashraj S. Kulkarni, Axel Abelein, Jüri Jarvet, Qinghua Liao, Birgit Strodel, Lisa Olsson, Jinghui Luo, Jan Pieter Abrahams, Sabrina B. Sholts, Per M. Roos, Shina C.L. Kamerlin, Astrid Gräslund, Sebastian K.T.S. Wärmländer Growing evidence links neurodegenerative diseases to metal exposure. Aberrant metal ion concentrations have been noted in Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) brains, yet the role of metals in AD pathogenesis remains unresolved. A major factor in AD pathogenesis is considered to be aggregation and amyloid formation by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Previous studies have shown that Aβ displays specific binding to Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions,...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


CYP21A2 expression is localized in the developing distal epithelium of the human perinatal lung and is compatible with in situ production and intracrine actions of active glucocorticoids
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): Wafae Bouhaddioui, Pierre R. Provost, Yves Tremblay Glucocorticoids play essential roles in lung development. We investigated for expression of CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase) as well as for the presence of the corresponding protein and identification of CYP21A2-expressing cells in several human developing lungs. Expression of some related genes was also assessed. CYP21A2 and CYP17A1 (P450c17) mRNAs were found in all the 34 lung samples from 17 to 40 weeks’ gestation at variable levels. No correlation was found according to sex but a correlation with age was detected for CYP17A1 only. In contrast, CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase)- and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase)-mRNAs w...


The role of glucocorticoid receptors in metabolic syndrome and psychiatric illness
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): Andreas G. Moraitis, Thaddeus Block, Dat Nguyen, Joseph K. Belanoff Glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in a large number of the physiological changes associated with metabolic syndrome and certain psychiatric illness. Although significance is often given to the concentration of GC, its biological action is determined by the activation of intracellular GC receptors (GR). Genetic polymorphisms of the GR and the large array of GR related cofactors can directly or indirectly affect the pathophysiology and evolution of these conditions. This review will discuss the effects of GR mutations on metabolic syndrome and psychotic depression. (Source: The Journal of Steroi...


Sterols and oxysterols in plasma from Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome patients
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): William J. Griffiths, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Peter J. Crick, Michael Ogundare, Cedric H. Shackleton, Karin Tuschl, Mei Kwun Kwok, Brian W. Bigger, Andrew A. Morris, Akira Honda, Libin Xu, Ned A. Porter, Ingemar Björkhem, Peter T. Clayton, Yuqin Wang Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defects in the cholesterol synthesising enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Δ7-sterol reductase, DHCR7, EC 1.3.1.21) leading to a build-up of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in tissues and blood plasma. Although the underling enzyme deficiency associated with SLOS is clear there are likely to...


Bivalve immunity and response to infections: Are we looking at the right place?
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Fish &amp; Shellfish Immunology Author(s): Bassem Allam, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa Significant progress has been made in the understanding of cellular and molecular mediators of immunity in invertebrates in general and bivalve mollusks in particular. Despite this information, there is a lack of understanding of factors affecting animal resistance and specific responses to infections. This in part results from limited consideration of the spatial (and to some extent temporal) heterogeneity of immune responses and very limited information on host-pathogen (and microbes in general) interactions at initial encounter/colonization sites. Of great concern is the fact that most studies on molluscan immunity focus on the circulating he...


Long-Term Hypoxic Exposure Alters The Cardiorespiratory Physiology of Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), But Does Not Affect Their Upper Thermal Tolerance
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Journal of Thermal Biology Author(s): Roman Motyka, Tommy Norin, Lene H. Petersen, D.B. Huggett, A. Kurt Gamperl It has been suggested that exposure to high temperature or hypoxia may confer tolerance to the other oxygen-limited stressor (i.e., ‘cross-tolerance’). Thus, we investigated if chronic hypoxia-acclimation (&gt;3 months at 40% air-saturation) improved the steelhead trout's critical thermal maximum (CTMax), or affected key physiological variables that could impact upper thermal tolerance. Neither CTMax (24.7 vs. 25.3°C) itself, nor oxygen consumption ( M ̇ O 2 ), haematocrit, blood haemoglobin concentration, or heart rate differed between hypoxia- and normoxia-acclimated trout when acutely warmed. Howe...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


5α-Dihydrotestosterone enhances wound healing in diabetic rats
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2016 Source:Life Sciences Author(s): Reggiani V. Gonçalves, Rômulo D. Novaes, Mariáurea M. Sarandy, Eduardo M. Damasceno, Sérgio L.P. da Matta, Neire M. de Gouveia, Mariella B. Freitas, Foued S. Espindola Wound healing involves a complex interaction between the cells, extracellular matrix and oxidative response. Aims Analyze the effects of 5α-Dihydrotestosterone (5α-DTH) ointment in cutaneous wound healing by secondary intention in diabetic Wistar rats. Main methods Rats (302.23±26.23g, n =48) were maintained in cages with food and water ad libitum in accordance with the Guiding Principles in the Use of Animal Ethics Committee. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60mg/kg). Three skin wounds (12m...


Local and continental determinants of giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) abundance: biome, human and jaguar roles in population regulation.
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Author(s): Verónica Andrea Quiroga, Andrew Jay Noss, Gabriel Iván Boaglio, Mario Santiago Di Bitetti The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is currently found in a wide variety of habitats from Honduras to Argentina. Across this wide range, researchers have postulated that anteater populations are negatively affected by several factors, including hunting, habitat loss and fragmentation, fire, vehicle collisions, and predation by jaguars. But no studies to date have evaluated the relative importance of these factors across sites, either at a regional or continental scale. We used camera traps to analyze variation in giant anteater abundance at two spatial scales. At a r...


Optical micro-tomography “OPenT” allows the study of large toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus embryos and larvae
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Development Author(s): Pedro M. Felix, Ania Gonçalves, Joana R. Vicente, Paulo J. Fonseca, M. Clara P. Amorim, José L. Costa, Gabriel G. Martins Batrachoidids, which include midshipman and toadfish are less known among embryologists, but are common in other fields. They are characteristic for their acoustic communication, and develop hearing and sound production while young juveniles. They lay large benthic eggs (&gt;5mm) with a thick chorion and adhesive disk and slow development, which are particularly challenging for studying embryology. Here we took advantage of a classical tissue clearing technique and the OPenT open-source platform for optical tomography imaging, to image a series of embryos and larv...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Mesoderm patterning and morphogenesis in the polychaete Alitta virens (Spiralia, Annelida): Expression of mesodermal markers Twist, Mox, Evx and functional role for MAP kinase signaling
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Development Author(s): Vitaly V. Kozin, Daria A. Filimonova, Ekaterina E. Kupriashova, Roman P. Kostyuchenko Mesoderm represents the evolutionary youngest germ layer and forms numerous novel tissues in bilaterian animals. Despite the established conservation of the gene regulatory networks that drive mesoderm differentiation (e.g. myogenesis), mechanisms of mesoderm specification are highly variable in distant model species. Thus, broader phylogenetic sampling is required to reveal common features of mesoderm formation across bilaterians. Here we focus on a representative of Spiralia, the marine annelid Alitta virens, whose mesoderm development is still poorly investigated on the molecular level. We characterize th...


Down-regulated Lotus japonicus GCR1 plants exhibit nodulation signalling pathways alteration
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Plant Science Author(s): Alessandra Rogato, Vladimir Totev Valkov, Ludovico Martins Alves, Fabio Apone, Gabriella Colucci, Maurizio Chiurazzi G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins involved in various signalling pathways by perceiving many extracellular signals and transducing them to heterotrimeric G proteins, which further transduce these signals to intracellular downstream effectors. GCR1 is the only reliable plant candidate as a member of the GPCRs superfamily. In the legume/rhizobia symbiotic interaction, G proteins are involved in signalling pathways controlling different steps of the nodulation programme. In order to investigate the putative hierarchic role played by GCR1 in these symbiotic pa...


Interaction of exposure concentration and duration in determining the apoptosis of testis in rats after cigarette smoke inhalation
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences Author(s): Lijuan He, Haiyan Gong, Jing Zhang, Chunxue Zhong, Yunfei Huang, Chen Zhang, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf The effects of differences in smoke concentration and exposure duration in Sprague Dawley rats to determine variation in type and severity of the testis apoptosis were evaluated. The daily dosages were 10, 20 and 30 non-filter cigarettes for a period of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Mainstream smoke exposure suppressed body weight gain in all regimens. A dose-related increase in plasma nicotine concentration was observed in smoke-exposed groups for 4, 6, 8 and 12 week regimens. Histopathological examination of the exposed groups showed disturbance in the stages of spermatogenesis, tubul...


Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences Author(s): Gong Haiyan, He Lijuan, Li Shaoyu, Zhang Chen, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEAFand flower of A. rugosa for the first time. ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEAF With GC and GC-MS method, the essential oil of flower was revealed the presence of 21 components, which major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p- Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%).At the same time, ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEAF, there is a very effective antimicrobial ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Deciphering the Structure and Function of Nuclear Pores Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Approaches
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Biology Author(s): Siegfried M. Musser, David Grünwald Due to its central role in macromolecular trafficking and nucleocytoplasmic information transfer, the nuclear pore complex (NPC) has been studied in great detail using a wide spectrum of methods. Consequently, many aspects of its architecture, general function, and role in the life cycle of a cell are well understood. Over the last decade, fluorescence microscopy methods have enabled the real-time visualization of single molecules interacting with and transiting through the NPC, allowing novel questions to be examined with nanometer precision. While initial single-molecule studies focused primarily on import pathways using permeabilized cells, it has recen...


The role of antimicrobial peptides in chronic inflammatory skin diseases.
Authors: Marcinkiewicz M, Majewski S Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of the innate immune system of the skin. They present an activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as some fungi, parasites and enveloped viruses. Several inflammatory skin diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris and rosacea are characterized by a dysregulated expression of AMPs. Antimicrobial peptides are excessively produced in lesional psoriatic scales or rosacea in contrast to the atopic skin that shows lower AMP levels when compared with psoriasis. The importance of the AMPs contribution to host immunity is indisputable as alterations in the antimicrobial peptide expression have been associated with various pathol...


BAF180 regulates cellular senescence and hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis through p21.
Authors: Hyemin L, Dai F, Zhuang L, Xiao ZD, Kim J, Zhang Y, Ma L, You MJ, Wang Z, Gan B Abstract BAF180 (also called PBRM1), a subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, plays critical roles in the regulation of chromatin remodeling and gene transcription, and is frequently mutated in several human cancers. However, the role of mammalian BAF180 in tumor suppression and tissue maintenance in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, using a conditional somatic knockout approach, we explored the cellular and organismal functions of BAF180 in mouse. BAF180 deletion in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) triggers profound cell cycle arrest, premature cellular senescence, without affecting DNA damage response or chromosomal integrity. While somatic deletion of BAF180 in adult mice does not provo...


An overview of long non-coding RNAs in ovarian cancers.
Authors: Meryet-Figuière M, Lambert B, Gauduchon P, Vigneron N, Brotin E, Poulain L, Denoyelle C Abstract As with miRNAs a decade ago, the scientific community recently understood that lncRNAs represent a new layer of complexity in the regulation of gene expression. Although only a subset of lncRNAs has been functionally characterized, it is clear that they are deeply involved in the most critical physiological and pathological biological processes. This review shows that in ovarian carcinoma, data already available testify to the importance of lncRNAs and that the demonstration of an ever-growing role of lncRNAs in the biology of this malignancy can be expected from future studies. We also underline the importance of their relationship with associated protein partners and miRNAs....


Homo Sapiens' Sex With Extinct Species Was No One-Night Stand
WASHINGTON, March 18 (Reuters) - Our species, Homo sapiens, has a more adventurous sexual history than previously realized, and all that bed-hopping long ago has left an indelible mark on the human genome. Scientists said on Friday an analysis of genetic information on about 1,500 people from locations around the world indicated at least four interbreeding episodes tens of thousands of years ago, three with our close cousins the Neanderthals and one with the mysterious extinct human species known as Denisovans. People living on the remote equatorial islands of Melanesia represented the only population found to possess an appreciable level of Denisovan genetic ancestry. These Melanesians, like most human populations, also had Neanderthal genetic ancestry. The researchers found some of the g...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>


Quantitative characterization of the interaction space of the mammalian carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, VII, IX, XII, XIV and their inhibitors, using the proteochemometric approach
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Using the proteochemometric approach could find remarkable information that can be taken into consideration for designing inhibitors with the ability of selective inhibition of either cytosolic isoforms transmembrane isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (PCM), we ic or anhydrase. (Source: Chemical Biology and Drug Design)


Circulating Plasma Tumor DNA.
Authors: Parsons HA, Beaver JA, Park BH Abstract Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA)-first identified in 1947-is "naked" DNA that is free-floating in the blood, and derived from both normal and diseased cells. In the 1970s, scientists observed that patients with cancer had elevated levels of ccfDNA as compared to their healthy, cancer-free counterparts. The maternal fetal medicine community first developed techniques to identify the small fraction of fetal-derived ccfDNA for diagnostic purposes. Similarly, due to the presence of tumor-specific (somatic) variations in all cancers, the fraction of circulating cell-free plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) in the larger pool of ccfDNA derived from normal cells can serve as extremely specific blood-based biomarkers for a patient's cancer. In theory...


Circulating Tumor Cells.
Authors: Paoletti C, Hayes DF Abstract Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) are shed from primary or secondary tumors. Prior studies have demonstrated that enumeration of CTC is a robust independent prognostic factor of progression free and overall survival in patients with early and metastatic breast cancer. CTC, as well as other circulating tumor markers, have the appealing advantages over tissue biopsy of (1) ease of collection, (2) serial evaluation, and (3) interrogation of the entire tumor burden instead of just a limited part of the tumor. Advances have been recently made in phenotyping and genotyping of CTC, which should provide insights into the predictive role of CTC for sensitivity or resistance to therapies. In addition, CTC phenotypic marker changes during the course of treat...