WORLD HOSPITAL DIRECTORY
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WORLD HOSPITAL DIRECTORY is the one and only largest database of hospitals around the world. There are over 35,000 plus records of hospitals across globe

WORLD HOSPITAL DIRECTORY has the World's largest online database of general, multispeciality, eye, dental, children, maternity, cardiac care, orthopedic, nephrology, neurology, diabetic, psychiatric, cancer, ENT, hospice, Rehabilitation, alternate medicine, veterinary hospitals across globe. Discover the complete list of hospitals available in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, rest of the world and online.


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1CEMIC
CEMIC
Category: General Hospitals
Argentina
South America, America
2Croydon Hospital (Tablelands HSD)
Croydon Hospital (Tablelands HSD)
Category: Mulispeciality Hospitals
Australia
Australia and New Zealand, Oceanic
3Regionaal Hospital Sint-Maria
Regionaal Hospital Sint-Maria
Category: Mulispeciality Hospitals
Belgium
Western Europe, Europe
4Bairro Passo D'areia Farmaconte Dist. Produtos Hospitalares Ltda.
Bairro Passo D'areia Farmaconte Dist. Produtos Hospitalares Ltda.
Category: Mulispeciality Hospitals
Brazil
South America, America
5BCIT - Technology Centre, Health Technology Research Group
BCIT - Technology Centre, Health Technology Research Group
Category: General Hospitals
Canada
North America, America

1.
Why Our Healthcare System Isnt Healthy
Why Our Healthcare System Isnt HealthyMost people are well aware that an estimated 45 million Americans currently do not have healthcare, but is the crisis simply the lack
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2.
Stopping Hospital Infections
Stopping Hospital InfectionsEach year hospitals end up killing twice as many people than automobiles, some 90,000 deaths in the United States. It is not from malpractice, i
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3.
Protect Yourself Against the Flu Vaccine!
Protect Yourself Against the Flu Vaccine!<br />
The vaccine industry insists that their vaccines against the flu serve as the key to a healthy winter. Although there has
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4.
Chinese Medicine
Chinese MedicineChinese Medicine, over 2000 years old, is an ancient form of medicine. Consisting of acupuncture, moxibustion (moxibustion - using material made up of
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5.
Medical Billing Specialist
Medical Billing SpecialistAs Pres. Bush was touring the Midwest, shortly before he was re-elected as President, and even after, he spoke of medical reform centering on
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6.
Nasonex And You: Breathe Easy, Not Sneezy
Nasonex And You: Breathe EasyWhile everybody else is wandering around enjoying the spring weather, are you hiding out in your hermetically-sealed house? Do you dread the star
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7.
Chronic Headaches and Pain Often Can Be Eliminated By A Special Dentist
Chronic Headaches Often Can Be Eliminated By A Special DentistDENVER ? Sometimes as Freud once said a good cigar is just a smoke. A headache, on the other hand, occas
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8.
Physicians, Chiropractors and Physical Therapist Agree on a New Treatment for Low Back Pain
New Treatment for Low Back Pain<br />
One of the most prevalent and difficult health conditions to treat in the physical medicine is low back pain. The difficulty in tre
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9.
Web Therapy: Enhancing Patient Communication with Web Access
Web Therapy: Enhancing Patient Communication with Web AccessAccording to Jennifer Lyons' chart, she's just a bad slip and fall who's lucky enough to be on her way to a full
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10.
Increasing Patient Care and Reducing Liability in Seven Simple Steps
Increasing Patient Care and Reducing Liability in Seven Simple StepsWhen an unconscious patient arrives in the ED, every hospital agrees that timely next of kin notificat
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11.
Cetyl Myristoleate Seperating Fact From Fiction
Cetyl Myristoleate Seperating Fact From FictionI am a strong believer in Cetyl Myristoleate for the treatment of arthritis. For the last three years I have been res
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12.
Medical Tests: What Does a Normal Range Mean?
Medical Tests: What Does a Normal Range Mean?We have a marvelous array of medical tests available to us. Many of them-typically blood-tests-even come with results expressed
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13.
CT and MRI Scans in Neurological Practice
CT and MRI Scans in Neurological Practice

Before computed tomographic (CT) scans became available in the 1970s, there was no good method for imaging the brain. The a
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14.
Alcohol Rehabilitation Centers - Take An Informed Decision
Alcohol Rehabilitation Centers - Take An Informed DecisionAlcohol rehabilitation centers in the United States offer a wide range of treatment programmes for your recovery f
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15.
Contact Lenses and Eye Glasses
Contact Lenses and Eye GlassesHow is Your Vision?
Notice friends getting contact lenses and pulling out eye glasses?

"What do you recommend?"

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16.
Death by Fluoride
Death by FluorideA wee bit of fluoride makes teeth and dentists happy, we're told. Dr. Happy Tooth's smiley face turns into a frown when his favorite decay buster is busted
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17.
10 Steps To Detoxification
10 Steps To DetoxificationTechnology. We live in a grand time of technological development. Computers, the Internet, cell phones, digital cameras and DVDs. But the human body h
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18.
New Surgical Treatment Options for Hernias
New Surgical Treatment Options for HerniasHernia repair is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide. In fact, there are over 600,000 hernia repa
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19.
Arthritis Pain Relief : FAQ
Arthritis Pain Relief : FAQA great place to begin taking charge of you arthritis pain relief and prevention planning is by making an appointment with your healthc
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20.
A Surgical Robot Fixes Heart in Brazil
a Surgical Robot Fixes Heart in BrazilBrazilian surgeons used a multi-armed robot to repair a hole in a woman's heart in the first operation of its kind in Latin Americ
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21.
Root Canal Therapy:FAQ
Root Canal Therapy:FAQOverview

A diseased or injured nerve use to mean that you were likely to lose a tooth. This is no longer the case thanks to root
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22.
ADHD - Are there Treatment Options?
ADHD - Are there Treatment Options?As an ADD coach I am often asked about the treatment options available for Attention Deficit Disorder. Generally when someone says "ADD" the f
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23.
7 Tips to Keep Your Fluid Down on Dialysis
7 Tips to Keep Your Fluid Down on DialysisAs any dialysis patient will tell you, keeping your fluid gain between dialysis sessions in check is not only important to your lon
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24.
Testosterone Therapy in XXI Century
Testosterone Therapy in XXI CenturyNowadays many people are familiar with the appellation of "low testosterone level". What does it mean? It mean that male body p
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25.
Stem Cell Research
Stem Cell ResearchHow To Buy Your Way Out Of An Early Death From An Incurable Disease.

How?... With private stem cell research, of course!?Stem cell research
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1.
Maharashtra woos medical tourists
Maharashtra woos medical touristsMany people from the developed world come to India for the rejuvenation promised by yoga and ayurvedic massage, but few consider it a de
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2.
Medical tourism: Need surgery, will travel
Maharashtra woos medical touristsA worldwide market

What's called medical tourism – patients going to a different country for either urgent or elective
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3.
Medical Tourism is Becoming a Huge Industry in India
Diatance LearningMany types of medical treatment in India cost a fraction of what they do in the United States and other Western nations, and citizens from these c
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4.
Medical tourism set to take off in a big way
Medical tourism set to take off in a big wayWith world class healthcare professionals, nursing care and treatment cost almost one-sixth of that in the developed
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5.
India eyeing share in medical tourism pie
India eyeing share in medical tourism pie A NICE blend of top-class medical expertise at attractive prices is helping a growing number of Indian corporate hospitals lure forei
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6.
Are we ready for medical tourism?
Are we ready for medical tourism? The private healthcare industry is quietly facilitating a revolution to enable India to emerge as a health destination. Yet there are the
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7.
Is medical tourism worth the risk?
Is medical tourism worth the risk?Thousands of Britons are heading abroad for cut-price treatment. We investigate the health tourism boom and asks if the benefits o
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8.
Package holiday surgery to beat NHS queue
Package holiday surgery to beat NHS queueA holiday firm is offering 'sun and surgery' package deals to India for patients tired of waiting for the NHS.

Th
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9.
Choosing the right weight loss surgery abroad
Choosing the right weight loss surgery abroadThe reluctance of public healthcare systems and health insurers to fund weight loss surgery means that more and more people are
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10.
The forgotten medical tourism destination
The forgotten medical tourism destinationAn article by medical tourism specialist, Ian Youngman, on one of the world’s leading destinations for medical travelers which seems
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11.
Why medical tourism needs facilitators
Why medical tourism needs facilitatorsFollowing our recent article on "How can patients judge quality in medical tourism?", Caroline Ratner spoke to Mike Silford, who run
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12.
How can patients judge quality in medical tourism?
How can patients judge quality in medical tourism?There's much discussion and hype around the medical tourism world about “quality”. Every hospital, clinic, healthcar
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13.
The importance of social media and the web in medical tourism
The importance of social media and the web in medical tourismMore than most other industries, medical tourism agencies and international patient departments rely heavily on t
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14.
Medical Tourism Destinations: Places That Top The Charts
Medical Tourism Destinations: Places That Top The ChartsMedical tourism is a popular trend among people in the US nowadays. Many Americans are moving abroad to get tr
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15.
Plastic & Cosmetic Surgery Option In Malaysia
Plastic & Cosmetic Surgery Option In MalaysiaMedical Tourism Malaysia is growing at an exponential growth factor. Its enjoying medical tourist from UK, Australia, New Zealand
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16.
Samitivej Medical Tourism, A Lucrative Business
Samitivej Medical Tourism, A Lucrative BusinessSamitivej Wins 2 Prestigious HMA Awards 2008 Path to Being the Largest Medical Tourism

Samitivej, a leading pri
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17.
Jordan pushes medical tourism industry
Jordan pushes medical tourism industryAfter establishing itself as a popular destination for medical care among Arabs in the Middle East, Jordan is now looking to attract more
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18.
Some Frequently Asked Questions about Medical Tourism
Some Frequently Asked Questions about Medical TourismWhat is the quality of care that I can expect? Most of the healthcare centers abroad such as hospitals clinics and diagnostic
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19.
Infertility Treatment in India
Infertility Treatment in IndiaInfertility is the inability to conceive a child by natural means. When a couple finds it difficult to conceive naturally, medication and spe
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20.
Medical Tourism Thailand
Medical Tourism ThailandThailand has been a popular holiday destination of the East which is now a popular medical tourism destination as well. The Thai medical service is on
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21.
Medical Tourism India
Medical Tourism IndiaA medical tourist in India can get the best of both worlds- excellent medical service from experts in the field of medicine and a splendid experience of a
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22.
Digitizing Medical Documents
Digitizing Medical DocumentsIt is a common fact that hospitals and doctors need a patient’s detailed medical history before treating them. But when you have travele
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23.
Roux-en-gastric bypass in India: An Overview
Roux-en-gastric bypass in India: An OverviewRoux-en-gastric bypass in India is very economical and affordable. Low cost but quality treatment attracts many patients of a
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24.
Need a dentist? Come to Croatia
Need a dentist? Come to Croatia



vaporizers



Croatia has decided to take
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25.
India offers hope for those too sick to wait
India offers hope for those too sick to waitEmerging into the teeming chaos of people, cows and honking vehicles outside Bangalore airport, retired teacher John Stauffer wonde
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Formononetin inhibits enterovirus 71 replication by regulating COX- 2/PGE 2 expression
Background: The activation of ERK, p38 and JNK signal cascade in host cells has been demonstrated to up-regulate of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/ prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) expression which is essential for viral replication. So, we want to know whether a compound can inhibit EV71 infection by suppressing COX-2/PGE2 expression. Methods: The antiviral effect of formononetin was determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay and the time course assays. The influence of formononetin for EV71 replication was determined by immunofluorescence assay, western blotting assay and qRT-PCR assay. The mechanism of the antiviral activity of formononetin was determined by western blotting assay and ELISA assay. Results: Formononetin could reduce EV71 RNA and protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The time course assays showed that formononetin displayed significant antiviral activity both before (24 or 12 h) and after (0–6 h) EV71 inoculation in SK-N-SH cells. Formononetin was also able to prevent EV71-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and suppress the activation of ERK, p38 and JNK signal pathways. Furthermore, formononetin could suppress the EV71-induced COX-2/PGE2 expression. Also, formononetin exhibited similar antiviral activities against other members of Picornaviridae including coxsackievirus B2 (CVB2), coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and coxsackievirus B6 (CVB6). Conclusions: Formononetin could inhibit EV71-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production via MAPKs pathway including ERK, p38 and JNK. Formononetin exhibited antiviral activities against some members of Picornaviridae. These findings suggest that formononetin could be a potential lead or supplement for the development of new anti-EV71 agents in the future.


Avian influenza H9N2 seroprevalence among pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China
Background: Shandong province of China has a large number of pig farms with the semi-enclosed houses, allowing crowds of wild birds to seek food in the pig houses. As the carriers of avian influenza virus (AIV), these wild birds can easily pass the viruses to the pigs and even the occupational swine-exposed workers. However, thus far, serological investigation concerning H9N2 AIV in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong are sparse. Methods: To better understand the prevalence of H9N2 AIV in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, the serum samples of pigs and occupational pig-exposed workers were collected and tested for the antibodies for H9N2 AIV by both hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and micro-neutralization (MN) assays. Results: When using the antibody titers ≥40 as cut-off value, 106 (HI: 106/2176, 4.87%) and 84 (MN: 84/2176, 3.86%) serum samples of pigs were tested positive, respectively; 6 (HI: 6/287, 2.09%) and 4 (MN: 4/287, 1.39%) serum samples of the pig farm staff were positive, respectively; however, serum samples from the control humans were tested negative in both HI and MN assays. Conclusions: These findings revealed that there were H9N2 AIV infections in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to conduct the long-term surveillance of AIV in pig population and the pig farm staff.


Association between TNFAIP3 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2230926 and chronic hepatitis B virus infection in a Chinese Han population
Background: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducible protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene have been linked to inflammatory, immunological and malignant diseases. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by immunopathogenesis. This study investigated the association of rs2230926, a nonsynonymous SNP in TNFAIP3 gene, with chronic HBV infection. Methods: Four hundred and fifty-five patients with chronic HBV infection with clinical diseases of chronic hepatitis (n = 183), liver cirrhosis (n = 167) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 105), 92 HBV infection resolvers and 171 healthy controls were included. All subjects were of Chinese Han ethnicity. Genotyping of rs2230926 was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: The gender and age between HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls had no statistical difference. The genotypes of rs2230926 in HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism between HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls had no significant difference. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism between HBV patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma also showed no significant difference. Conclusions: The TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism is not suggested to be associated with the susceptibility of chronic HBV infection or the progression of HBV-related diseases in this study. Replicative studies and studies in large control and HBV patient populations of different ethnicity by genotyping more polymorphisms in TNFAIP3 gene are needed.


Constant up-regulation of BiP/GRP78 expression prevents virus-induced apoptosis in BHK-21 cells with Japanese encephalitis virus persistent infection
Background: Persistent infection of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) has been reported in clinical cases, experimental animals, and various cell culture systems. We previously reported the establishment of spontaneous JEV persistent infection, assisted by defective interfering particle accumulation and/or attenuated helper viruses, in BHK-21 cells devoid of virus-induced apoptosis, cBS6-2 and cBS6-3. However, cell-specific factors may play important roles in controlling JEV replication and have never been assessed for this specific phenomenon. Recent evidence suggests that viruses have evolved various mechanisms to cope with endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways for their efficient amplification and transmission, including the unfolded protein response (UPR). Results: To identify the host cell factors that affect JEV persistence, we investigated the expression of essential UPR factors in cBS6-2 and cBS6-3 cells. Of the selected UPR factors tested, the most noticeable deviations from those of the normal BHK-21 cells with JEV acute infection were as follows: the suppression of C/EBP homologous binding protein (CHOP) and the constant up-regulation of immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP) expression in cBS6-2 and cBS6-3 cells. In JEV acute infection on normal BHK-21 cells, silencing CHOP expression through specific siRNA blocked cell death almost completely. Meanwhile, depletion of BiP by specific siRNA unlocked CHOP expression in cBS6-2 and cBS6-3 cells, resulting in massive cell death. Fulminant apoptotic cell death for both cell clones on tunicamycin treatment revealed that the JEV persistently infected cells still contained functional arms for cell fate decisions. Conclusions: BHK-21 cells with JEV persistent infection strive against virus-induced apoptosis through constant up-regulation of BiP expression, resulting in the complete depletion of CHOP even with apparent virus amplification in the cells. Accordingly, the attenuation of virus replication as well as the modifications to cell metabolism could be additional factors contributing to the development of JEV persistent infection in mammalian cells.


Rhinovirus is an important pathogen in upper and lower respiratory tract infections in Mexican children
Background: Most of the studies characterizing the incidence of rhinovirus (RV) have been carried out in hospitalized children and in developed countries. In those studies, RV-C has been associated with more severe respiratory tract infections than RV species A and B. In this study we determined the frequency and diversity of RV strains associated with upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI, LRTI) in Mexico, and describe the clinical characteristics of the illness associated with different RV species. Methods: A prospective surveillance of 526 and 250 children with URTI and LRTI was carried out. Respiratory samples were analyzed by RT-PCR for viruses. The 5′ untranslated region of the RV genome was amplified and sequenced. Results: In the case of URTI, 17.5% were positive for RV, while this virus was found in 24.8% of LRTI. The RV species was determined in 73 children with URTI: 61.6% were RV-A, 37% RV-C and, 1.4% RV-B; and in 43 children with LRTI: 51.2% were RV-A, 41.8% RV-C, and 7% RV-B. No significant differences in clinical characteristics were found in patients with RV-A or RV-C infections. A high genetic diversity of RV strains was found in both URTI and LRTI. Conclusions: Both RV-A and RV-C species were frequently found in hospitalized as well as in outpatient children. This study underlines the high prevalence and genetic diversity of RV strains in Mexico and the potential severity of disease associated with RV-A and RV-C infections.


Recombinant adenovirus as a model to evaluate the efficiency of free chlorine disinfection in filtered water samples
Background: In Brazil, ordinance no. 2,914/2011 of the Ministry of Health requires the absence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in treated water. However it is essential that water treatment is effective against all pathogens. Disinfection in Water Treatment Plants (WTP) is commonly performed with chlorine. Methods: The recombinant adenovirus (rAdV), which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) when cultivated in HEK 293A cells, was chosen as a model to evaluate the efficiency of chlorine for human adenovirus (HAdV) inactivation in filtered water samples from two WTPs: Lagoa do Peri (pH 6.9) and Morro dos Quadros (pH 6.5). Buffered demand free (BDF) water (pH 6.9 and 8.0) was used as control. The samples were previously submitted to physicochemical characterization, and bacteriological analysis. Two free chlorine concentrations and two temperatures were assayed for all samples (0.2 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, and 15°C, and 20°C). Fluorescence microscopy (FM) was used to check viral infectivity in vitro and qPCR as a molecular method to determine viral genome copies. Real treated water samples from the WTP (at the output of WTP and the distribution network) were also evaluated for total coliforms, E. coli and HAdV. Results: The time required to inactivate 4log10 of rAdV was less than 1 min, when analyzed by FM, except for BDF pH 8.0 (up to 2.5 min for 4log10). The pH had a significant influence on the efficiency of disinfection. The qPCR assay was not able to provide information regarding rAdV inactivation. The data were modeled (Chick-Watson), and the observed Ct values were comparable with the values reported in the literature and smaller than the values recommended by the EPA. In the treated water samples, HAdV was detected in the distribution network of the WTP Morro dos Quadros (2.75 x 103 PFU/L). Conclusion: The CW model proved to have adjusted well to the experimental conditions used, and it was possible to prove that the adenoviruses were rapidly inactivated in the surface water treated with chlorine and that the recombinant adenovirus expressing GFP is a good model for this evaluation.


Association of human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants with cervical carcinoma and precursor lesions in women from Southern Mexico
Background: HPV 16 is the cause of cervical carcinoma, but only a small fraction of women with HPV infection progress to this pathology. Besides persistent infection and HPV integration, several studies have suggested that HPV intratype variants may contribute to the development of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nucleotide variability and phylogenetically classify HPV 16 E6 variants circulating over a period of 16 years in women from Southern Mexico, and to analyze its association with precursor lesions and cervical carcinoma. Methods: This study was conducted in 330 cervical DNA samples with HPV 16 from women who were residents of the State of Guerrero, located in Southern Mexico. According of cytological and/or histological diagnosis, samples were divided into the following four groups: no intraepithelial lesion (n = 97), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (n = 123), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (n = 19) and cervical carcinoma (n = 91). HPV 16 E6 gene was amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequence (HPV 16R) and a phylogenetic tree was constructed to identify and classify HPV 16 variants. Chi squared was used and data analysis and statistics were done with SPSS Statistics and STATA softwares. Results: Twenty seven HPV 16 E6 variants were detected in women from Southern Mexico, 82.12% belonged to the EUR, 17.58% to AA1 and 0.3% to Afr2a sublineages. The most common was E-G350 (40%), followed by E-prototype (13.03%), E-C188/G350 (11.82%), AA-a (10.61%), AA-c (6.07%) and E-A176/G350 (5.15%). Eight new E6 variants were found and 2 of them lead to amino acid change: E-C183/G350 (I27T) and E-C306/G350 (K68T). The HPV 16 variant that showed the greatest risk of leading to the development of CC was AA-a (OR = 69.01, CI = 7.57-628.96), followed by E-A176/G350 (OR = 39.82, CI = 4.11-386.04), AA-c (OR = 21.16, CI 2.59-172.56), E-G350 (OR = 13.25, CI = 2.02-87.12) and E-C188/G350 (OR = 10.48, CI = 1.39-78.92). Conclusions: The variants more frequently found in women with cervical carcinoma are E-G350, AA-a, AA-c, E-C188/G350 and E-A176/G350. All of them are associated with the development of cervical carcinoma, however, AA-a showed the highest association. This study reinforces the proposal that HPV 16 AA-a is an oncogenic risk for cervical carcinoma progression in Mexico.


Healthy rabbits are susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus infection and infected cells proliferate in immunosuppressed animals
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus implicated in the pathogenesis of several human malignancies. However, due to the lack of a suitable animal model, a number of fundamental questions pertaining to the biology of EBV remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the potential of rabbits as a model for EBV infection and investigate the impact of immunosuppression on viral proliferation and gene expression. Methods: Six healthy New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated intravenously with EBV and blood samples collected prior to infection and for 7 weeks post-infection. Three weeks after the last blood collection, animals were immunosuppressed with daily intramuscular injections of cyclosporin A at doses of 20 mg/kg for 15 days and blood collected twice a week from each rabbit. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and tissues from all major organs were collected for subsequent analysis. Results: Following intravenous inoculation, all 6 rabbits seroconverted with raised IgG and IgM titres to EBV, but viral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could only be detected intermittently. Following immunosuppression however, EBV DNA could be readily detected in PBMCs from all 4 rabbits that survived the treatment. Quantitative PCR indicated an increase in EBV viral load in PBMCs as the duration of immunosuppression increased. At autopsy, splenomegaly was seen in 3/4 rabbits, but spleens from all 4 rabbit were EBV PCR positive. EBER-in situ hybridization and immunoshistochemistry revealed the presence of a large number of EBER-positive and LMP-1 positive lymphoblasts in the spleens of 3/4 rabbits. To a lesser extent, EBER-positive cells were also seen in the portal tract regions of the liver of these rabbits. Western blotting indicated that EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 were also expressed in the liver and spleen of infected animals. Conclusion: EBV can infect healthy rabbits and the infected cells proliferate when the animals are immunocompromised. The infected cells expressed several EBV-latent gene products which are probably driving the proliferation, reminiscent of what is seen in immunocompromised individuals. Further work is required to explore the potential of rabbits as an animal model for studying EBV biology and tumorigenesis.


The efficacy of zinc finger antiviral protein against hepatitis B virus transcription and replication in tansgenic mouse model
AimThe zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a mammalian host restriction factor, and it could inhibit HBV RNA synthesis in vitro experiments. However, the role of ZAP against HBV in vivo environment is unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether ZAP could act against HBV transcription and replication in ZAP tansgenic mouse model. Methods: HBV-replication-competent plasmid pHBV4.1 was transferred to ZAP transgenic ICR mouse via the tail vein using a hydrodynamic in vivo transfection procedure, and ICR mouse were used as controls. HBV RNA and HBV DNA replication intermediates in the liver were respectively analyzed by Northern blotting and Southern blotting. The expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in the liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: As compared to ICR control mouse, the levels of 3.5 kb mRNA in ZAP transgenic mouse were decreased by 8.4%; while the level of HBV DNA replication intermediates was decreased by 82%. In addition, the expression of HBsAg and HBcAg in ZAP transgenic mouse liver were both significantly less than that of ICR control mouse. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ZAP could inhibit HBV replication in vivo in mice, which offers a new target for anti-HBV drug development.


Polyclonal gammopathy after BKV infection in HSCT recipient: a novel trigger for plasma cells replication?
Background: BK polyomavirus infects most of the general population. However, its clinical manifestations are almost exclusively seen in immunocompromised patients, particularly in kidney and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.Case presentationA 15-y-old female suffering from common B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The patient had reactivation of BKPyV infection and developed an haemorrhagic cystitis. Three months after transplant, BKPyV viremia and viruria increased and she developed a severe nephropathy associated to a polyclonal gammopathy with high levels of isolated IgM. Conclusion: This case report describes a rare and unexpected polyclonal gammopathy developed during a polyomavirus-associated nephropathy confirmed by immunohistochemical and laboratory analyses.